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April 19, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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April 19, 1945
 

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t i PAGE EIGHT Entire Nation Mourns Death Of Franklin Roosevelt; Vast Tasks Face Truman FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT JANUARY 30, 1882---APRIL 12, 1945. q AS THE guns of America's fighting forces sounded ever closer the doom of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, Franklin Delano Roosevelt died in Warm Springs, Georgia, where he had been resting for 10 days. Death resulted from a cerebral hemorrhage at 4:35 p. m. on April 12. Mr. Roosevelt was 63. He had been President for 12 years, one month and nine days. The White House was announced as the site of :the funeral, with interment at the family estate at Hyde Park, N. Y. Less than four months had elapsed since he had taken his historic oath of office for a fourth term. Only a few weeks before he had returned from the Yalta conference where in company with Marshal. Stalin of Russia and Prime Minister Churchill of Great Britain he had labored to build an endur- ing peace. Fate denied Franklin Roosevelt the chance to enjoy the fruits of victory over the Axis. Yet history seemed destined to enshrine him as one of the immortal American Pregident$. And every citizen who mourned the untimely passing of the Commander-in-Chief felt that he was a casualty of the war just as surely as every G. I Marine and Sailor who had fallen in battle. Never before had an American President died in wartime. Abra- ham Lincoln fell under Assassin Booth's bullet just five days "after the surrender of General Lee's army at Appomattox in 1865. Woodrow Wilson lived to see victory over Germany in World War I, but he fought a losing battle for the League of Nations and died early in 1924, a defeated leader. ManY historians believe Lincoln's great- ness might have been dimmed in the conflicts over reconstruction that followed the War Between' the States, just as Wiison's prestige was lost in the conflict over the ,league that followed World War L 'Thus Franklin Roosevelt. dying at ~the height of his career Just aJ yic- ~tory was to be achieved over Gor- many, seemed likely to livq ~hi~ ~tory as a great man. I ,As the American people from i ~lqain Street to Riverside Drli~b' ~nourned the death of Franklin Roosevelt, their prayers went up tot his successor, Harry S. Trt~an. Nor on the shoulders of this slight, gray, B0-year-old Ml~n had been laid u responsibility such as no American President had ever borne. What the eoneequeacem ef thO ]President's death would be to the United States amd the world, time alone would tell. But as Americans recovered ~rom their first shook it the ,news, they quickly detormlned two things. The war must be prosecuted to as speedy and victorious a finish us possible lasting peace must be estsb- llshed. "' And ~o, regardless of party or of. past political differences# the 'i~eO- ,ple have rallied behind Mr. Truman, The new President faeea ~the ira- HARBY S. TRUMAN Urd PRESIDENT OF U. J. may be maintained in helping win the peace. He faces the long-range }ob of ~lding the nation to postwar econom/c prosperity once Nazi Ger- many and Japan are finally defeated. Known u a plain, modest man who has not dramatised himself personally, l~esident Truman nevertheless has dem- onstrated on many ec~sious that be can be a leader of force and determination. His work as chairman of the Truman com- mittee In the U. S. senate in- veetigatlng the conduct of the war Is eked ns an example of this. And hi8 conduct of the Vice ]presidency has shown that he can work successfully with political leaders of both parties in getting needed measuree palmed and In reconciling op- pot~g points of view. The ~rd President was born in Lamar, Mo May 8, 1884, although ~mediate task of directing American f the home of the family for four ~particJpaticn in ~e United Nsti~'J generations had been on a farm ~bluepr|nts for a permanent world I near independence, Mo. organlzation. He I/kewias htces sol Served fn World War I. responsibility of eatabUs~!~ wO~ ing s~elaflons with other m en~,en When World War I broke out, of the Big Three, so ma~ me per- Truman bemune ~ptain of Bot- 8onal cooperation which exhJtod ~tory D fn the field 8a4fllery of tween Franklin D. Rooeevel~ J0sezthe $Sth Division and saw ae* Stalin and Winston~ ~rChf]l "~ ~ton at 8L MibJel and in the leading the AlUes toward victory Meuse-Argonne offensive. PRECEDENTS OUT: Throughout his career as ~- ~lent, Franklin D. Roosevelt was known as the "precedent breaker:" That title was first eonferred in .when he flew out to Chicago 1~m $,Abany, N. Y to address the ~mo- cratic convention that had na -- ated him. It continued after his electIcn us a res,flt of his informal rne~hods of transacting busll~e~. But it reached a climax in h~ de- cision ~o seek a third term in 1~10 and a fourth term in 1044. Back in Independence, Truman and a war buddy opened a haber- dashery business. He married his boyhood sweetheart, Bess Wallace, and they have one daughter, Mary Margaret. Truman later turned to po/itlcs for a career, which started with his election as County Judge of Jack- son county, Mo. In 1926 he became the presiding Judge of Jackson county, with the endorsement of Tom Pendergast, political boss ef Kansas City. He studied law at night and supervised the construe- flon of great Mghway system- THE BILLINGS COUNTY PIONEER THURSDAY, APRIL 19, 1945 President's Life Was Characteri=ed By Vigorous Action Unlike the "log-cabin" presidenls, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was nol born into poverty. When Franklin arrived at Hyde Park, N. Y on January 30, 1882, he came into a family that had possessed wealth for many generations. The Roose- volts had been thrifty land-owners in the Hudson valley since the first of the family came over from Hol- land. On his mother's side also there was a substantial fortune. Among his ancestors were many men who had served the state in various capacities. Young Franklin attended the very fashionable Croton school, where ha prepared for Harvard university. After completing the liberal arts :ourse he entered Columbia U. law school, from which he was gradu- ated in 1907. Two years earlier, however, he married his distant cousin, Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. Eleanor was a niece of Theodore Roosevelt, at that time in the White House. After two years of legal prac- tic.e, Franklin entered politics, running on the Democratic ticket for the New York state semtte. He unexpectedly defeat- ed a strong Republican candi- date. From the beginning of his career he identified himself with reform movements, opposing the powerful Tammany organi- zation in the statehouse. He was re-elected in 1912, by which time he had become a leader of the anti-Tammany faction. Woodrow Wilson appointed Roose- velt assistant secretary of the navy. When World War I broke out Roosevelt proved himself an effi- cient admimstrator, handling bil- lions of dollars' worth of contracts for ships and supplies. He served in this post throughout the war. Ran for Vice President. In 1920 the Democratic national convention chose him as running mate for James Cox. While cam- paigning for the vice presidency Roosevelt made many acquaint- ances valuable in later political life. Cox being defeated, F.D.R. returned to legal practice. The following year the great tragedy of his life struck him-- Infantile paralysis. The big, strong young man became a bedridden Invalid. For months he lay without ambition, almost without hope. Slowly his pow- erful will took command, how- ever, and by persistence he partially regained the use of Ms muscles. It was during his convalescence at Warm Springs, Ga that he determined to do what he could to eradicate the scourge that had almost ruined him. The "March of Dimes" campaign was the result. At the Democratic conventions of 1924 and 1928, he aligned himself with the group supporting ALfred E. Smith. New York's governor. When Smith was nominated in 1928, RoSseveIt ran for governor of his state and was elected." At the end of his two-year term he was again elected, this time by the greatest majority ever given to a New York governor. As governor he continued the re- form and improvement policies of his predecessor Smith. His achieve- merits attracted nati~)nwide atten- tion. As the depression that began late in 1929 deepened, his efforts to control the mounting business failures, unemployment and dis- tress in his state revealed his abili- ties as a vigorous leader in grave times. Swept In as President. When the national convention met tn Chicago in 1932 Roosevelt was quickly chosen. He was swept into office by a plurality of seven million votes, carrying 4,2 states. Both houses went Democratic. Before he could take office s wnve~of bank failures threat- ened the whole economie strue* inre. The famous "bank mor~ terium" order, one of Koose* -eli's first official acts, closed all I~nks ontfl they could be re* orgu~dsed on u sounder basis, thus preventing disastrous runs. In the spring of 1932 came the ropoal of the 18th, or prohibi- tion amendment. Then came the National Industrial Recov- ery Act, or "NRA," under wh/eh extensive emergency pow- ors were irranted to the Presi- dmtL A series of publle works were authorised to combat un- employment, together with huge appropriations for direct reUef. The numerous executive and leg- islative acts of this first term were approved in general as necessary in the face of widespread suffer- ing. A phrase from one of the President's speeches, ' a new deal," developed into a title for the whole Roosevelt program. In 1936 the convention in ]phil. adelplda nominated Roosevelt by acclamation on the first bal- Io~ He carried 46 states in the elections. This second term ms- ority was so overwhelming that many New Dealers began to call it s "mandate from the people." buring-this seeend term a great number of mea- sures were passed to Inerease the economic security of the in. dlvldual, particularly the work- ors, farmers and small bust- IMmiLme~. Clinic ForCrippled Children Will Be Held At Dickinson A one-day Crippled Children's Clinic, sponsored by Dickinson Elks Lodge No. 1137, will be held in Dickinson on Monday, April 23, 1945, at the Memorial Building from 9 to 3 p. m. which embraces the counties of ~illings, Slope, Bowman, Adams, Stark, Hettinger, Dunn and Golden Valley: It is desirable that at least one of the parel~ts ac- company the child to the clinic and remain with the child during the examination. No treatments are given at these clinics. Recom- mendations are made by the