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May 17, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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May 17, 1945

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II CONSOLIDATED VOL. XXVL MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTATHURSDAY, MAY 17, 1945 NO. 49. I i i WEEKLY NEWS.ANALYS|S "-1 Collapse o[ Re, h Spells ndI To German Dominance in Europ. e;I Truman Cuts Budget 7% BilhonI . Released by Western Newspaper Union. WAR PRODUCT-TON: Tapering Of/ With Germany's collapse focusing attention on the government's eco- nomic policies after V-E Day, War Production board officials revealed that arms contracts already were being cut back to lessen the shock of readjustment to a one-front war. Despite the broadening of civilian goods output after V-E Day, offi- cials said, war production still will dominate industry with no less than /43 billion dollars worth of munitions and supplies turned out in the first year after victory in Europe. Because of the military needs for the Pacific war, some material and manpower controls will have to be retained, officials declared. Further, [ the government may have to estab- lish employment priorities for such essential civilian industries as lure- WNU Service, Union Trust Building, her, textiles and rubber because of Washington, D. C. People Deciding Factor Of Security Conference Heed of Public Will to Build Effective Barrier Against Future Wars Marks Delibera- tions From Past Parleys. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. the limited supply of these products i CONFERENCE HEADQUAR- and their importance not only to the TERS, SAN FRANCISCO,--The ex- war but also to the manufacture of', tent to which deliberations .of the peacetime goods. ] United Nations conference on inter- I national organization will be a suc- DEEP DIVE: c~ss can now be readily predicted. Record Set All we need is a master-mathema- tician who will solve for "x"--the Wearing a 50-potmd diving suitunknown. and a new type of helium-oxygen mask, John Browne of Milwaukee, The proposition is simple: let m Wis entered a specially built tank equal one molotov, s equal one stet- in the basement of his diving equip- tinius, e equal one eden. The equa- ment company and remained sub-tion reads: Spectacular photo shows Jap pilot trying to maneuver plane for merged while pumps applied pres- m over s plus e equals x sure equal to a depth of 550 feet of Solve for x, the unknown power suicidal crash-dive on American warmhlp off Okinawa. "water. " of the will of the people. ' T With the present working depth We have a certain amount of cor- EUROPE: U.S. BUDGE : about 440 feet, purpose of the ex- ollary data to help us. periment was to attempt to increase In 1815 there was a meeting called At Allied Mercy Big Cut the distance for extended submarine the Congress of Vienna. It was fab- "The direction of our fate no Because of the favorable progress rescue and salvage operations,ulously attended by kings, princes, longer lies in German lands." of the.ot:~e P:::i'~n~aT~u=:; pW:: Claiming the testa success, Browne a czar and an emperor as well as i " r of i ame ~ averred that dives of even 650 feet the ministers and diplomats who ran s oke ex Nazl Mm ste Thus p - I the budget for the year beginning may be possible. Europe at the time. It convened for nts and Production Albert " - : "most "7 500 000 000 to a Armame . i #my 1 oy at ~, While at the simulated depth of very definite purposes, including the Speer as the final collapse o~t~erman ]total of $83 000 000,000 $70,000,000,- 550 feet, Browne was under pres- checking for all time certain dan- arm|es" from the ] 000 of which will represent military sure of 240 pounds a square inch or gerous tendencies which were be- ~::~!~:::~:!;~.- Baltic to the Alps[ a~ a total of 570,000 pounds, ginning to make themselves felt. ::~::~:'. ;:::::":~ ':i::~:::':!!:~::,:i:!: ~'LJ~L'~=" signalled ont~:eb::::d ] Biggest reduction of a.ll. a i One matter which had really brought i thiraUP o.z mereicn, w~'hich ,] $7,365,000,000 slash in sh,po =ng [ Expensive Feedbag ~ about the conference was the defeat ts|funds, with the mar~tlme comrms- ! of Napoleon Bonaparte. Unfortu- ~J~~~i nan stre~cnea ?~ /sign left $2 242 500 for completing nately there was a sudden reap- ~ili::~ dominance zrom ~ e ~ ' ' libel Atlantic to the Vol- ~ the present construction program To be li/b~d alter Y.E Day, the ben pearance of that gentleman, who ~! ader I and $600 000 000 for future buildmg, on horse racing has been cos~$ breed, broke his bonds of servitude at Elba, : ga unoer me te " ' ' ship of Adolf Hitler ~ reconversion of vessels and restora- era and owners an estimated $5,000,000 to play a short but fearsome return himself reportedly ltion of productive facilities, monthly /or upkeep without return, engagement. mr~men report . ' threat of the return of an killed in the ruin, of I Because of the expectaU~t;s71~4~ Expense was ~ea .~.po.n ma=.n=~.nanee ::!:: Berlin. ]early victory m ~urope, ~,at 32,000 horws, olwhichZO,~|,netua- upstart dictator who managed to i ~i!~ii~ Even as Speer ~ was cut from the budget of the Fed- ed stallions, mares, we~nttngs and yNr- t provide himself with a crown based :~i spoke, new Fuehrer [ era] Security administration for edu- on no more divine right than was ,i!:::: Karl Doenitz and/cation and training of defense I supplied ~y his legions caused the i; Gestapo Chief Hein- I workers; .$13,~00,000 from the ?jt~ce congress its jitters but ,didn't inter- :: : rich Himmler re- ] of Scientme t(esearcn and ueve,up- ways./ere with the frolicsome tenor of its portedly met in con- [ ment; $12,100,000 from the Office of ~:i: ference with Allied ] War Information for psychological It had been a decade of headaches officials for the final I warfare and act~vitms in neu!ral for crowned heads. There was the for ~ countries" $8 894 000 from the war French revolution, quashed by that arrangem -~,' ' ' Karl Doenitssurrender. But as i Production board for direction over time, it is true, but a dangerous and they met, the Ger-~ some material controls to be re- threat to the ermine. There was Heinrich mane, striving for [ moved after V-E day; $4,800,000 in the strange government which would Hlmmler the best terms pea-] the Office of Censorship for opera- have no traffic with kings at all sible, threatened tions in areas contiguous to Europe, lings on /am.; 6 000 in~ra{ning a a which seemed to be prospering rolon atmn of the war by a last- and $8,300,000 for the Office of De- cost o[ $7 daily, and another 6,000 run. across the seas in the wilds of Amer. P g " ation tor superw- ica. And then this highly irreverent ditch stand in mountainous Norway, fense Transport v- ners at $3 daily. s stood ensan of tramc expected m m,p,v ~ ~ith some mr/men estimating lost o/ attitude toward the divine right of where 150,000 enemy troop " "- "er 31 $4,000,000 in revenue ~rom purses since kings. sconced in the rugged country well by Decemo ]anuary 3, when the ban went into el. suppnea, pACIFIC" tees, many horsemen have been hard It was all very Important to the Claiming to have been designated -- ". pressed, obtaining assistance from trace delegates at Vienna but like the sol- new fuehrer by Hitler himself be- U.Boat Drive ma,~emenu on a loan basts, dier on guard her{. at the conference building in San Francisco it was fore his reported death. Doenltz Operating in air-conditioned SAN FRANCISCO: confusing, so they let George do it. made an early revamp of the new government in an effort to make it more tasteful to the Allies, with non- Nazi Count Von Krosigk supplanting Joachim Von Ribbentrop as foreign minister. Skilled as finance minis- ter, Von Krosigk played a prominent part in the buildup of German indus- tr~ during the Hitler regime. Doenitz's participation in the sur- render negotiations followed Hiram- let's earlier failure to arrange a capitulation to Great Britain and the U. S the two powers insisting on the inclusion of Russia. Although Doenitz declared that the reich was carrying on the war against the Reds alone, Britain and America again made it plain that they could consider no surrender unless the Nazis also laid down their arms to the Russians. Germany's end approached with the Big Three powers substantially occupying the reich along lines pre* piously mapped out, with the British holding the northwest portion, the U. S. the central and south, and Rus- sia the northeast. The same condi- tion existed in Austria, where the Reds held Vienna and contiguous territory as planned while U. S. armies moved in to take over the western portion. As Speer sounded the death-knell of Nazi Germany, he admitted the reich was at the Allies' mercy. Said he: "It lles with our enemies wheth- er they wish to grant the German people the possibilities that lie open to the nation As far as the en- emy allows it or where he orders it, reconstruction work should be speed- ed up by every means." 'Painful ExPerience" submarines, equipped with sun lamps and ice cream machines, daring U. S. raiders are inflict- ing a heavy toll on ~apanese naval and cargo shipping alike, having already sunk 400,000 tons of combat vessels and 4.000,000 tons of commercial craft. De luxe furnishing of American submersibles does not imply any softening of their doughty crews, Vice Adm. Charles Lockwood Jr commander of Pacific U- boat operations, said. Rather, air - conditioning removes the stuffiness which made the old subs akin to a Turkish bath; sun lamps provide the healthy effects of sunlight, and ice cream helps divert the men from heav- ier food. Concentrating on Jap supply routes to each new place marked for American attack and inva- sion, U. S. U-boats average three or four Jap ships on every trip, with sinkings of 8 and 10 ves- sels not unusual. army headquarters, the tall but thin- ning Junker militarist softly com- plained: "This is a painful experi- ence for an old soldier. Forty-three years--a very painful experience." After accepting coffee and cognac, Von Rundstedt then asked for a cigarette, and in answer to his at- tending physician's protest against smoking because of his heart, he said: " There are few things left now -- and the doctors try to keep me from enjoying them." Commander-in-chief of German forces in the west at the Ume~ of tha Allied invastiO~ o~ France. Von Rundstedi said that the American air force's pulverization of railroads and roadways made it impossible for him to bring up reinfurcemen~ to counter the landings. Among the last men to see Hitler. Von Rundstedt said that although the fuehrer appeared in good health when he bid him farewell in March he shook as if with palsy. Postwar Bases Formation of international trus- teeships for conquered territor- ies, for areas taken over in the last war and for subject people oc- cupied the attention of the delegates to the United Nations postwar secu- rity conference in San Francisco. Because the U. S. again will be chiefly responsible for the defense of the Pacific in the postwar era, the subject was of especial concern to the American representatives, who pressed for acceptance of a plan under which this country could per- manently lease bases on conquered islands without being compelled to urn them over to any other trustee power. The power was patterned after this country's arrangements with Great Britain calling for the 99- year lease of bases in Bermuda, Newfoundland and the West In. dies. and the agreement with Pana- ma under which the U. S. occupies the canal zone for $250,000 per year. MEAT CRISIS: House Report Adequate pricing backed by ac- companying government subsidies was urged by a special house com- mittee investigating food shortages to help reliev$ the pressing meat situation. In placing stress upon the neces- sity for readjusting the price struc- ture. the committee asserted that OPA got off on the wrong foot by first establishing retail prices. ~tlt~ working down the line with the inter, Jection of subsidies in an effort to remove resulting inequities. Ruling out an increase in retail prices, the committee rather recom- mended the payment of $4 more a hundredweight for fat cattle, and also asked an increase in hog floors to $15.50. Only by assuring pro- ducers a profitable price margin can black markets be curbed, the c)m. mlttee declared. Thousands o? 'Soul*" Traded at Congreu And so at Vienna with all the pro- tocol and deference in the world, Talleyrand took over. He let the congress dance. He ran it, divid- ed up the spoils; traded so many thousand "souls" for so many thou- sand others, for thus he referred to the various sections of Europe's population he was playing with. He called them souls but he didn't even consider them human beings with human rights. They had nothing to say about it and they said it, silently. A year less than a century later there arose another war-lord who had forgotten nothing and learned nothing concerning European dicta- torships. One of the best Jobs ~g wrecking civilization up to that time was achieved by Kaiser Wilhelm and the world had to get together again to see what could be done about it again. They met in Paris in 1919. This time the twilight of the kings had become so thick that scepters were decidedly out, but considerable changa had taken place in the in- tervening century. At the Congress of Vienna there was not a single constitutional government, except that of Britain, represented. There was no freedom of the press, and no public opinion. At Paris the At. lied press was hardly free of its war- time censorship but managed to stir up considerable excitement--and the government-centrollad French pa- pers made plenty of trouble for Wilson. The people were conseio~ of their desh'es but still not entirely vocal. The conference was soc~ tossed from the delegates to smaller and smal~r groups and finally reached .~rbe Big Three"--Wilson, Lloyd George and Clemenceau, and the greatest of these as a negotiator, was Clemenceau. He had more ol~ position than Talleyrand, perhaps, but he certainly was no less sue- ceesful. Then came the 30-year interlude Of all the prominent German generals who surrendered to the Al- lies, none was more prominent than 69-year-old Field Mar~shal Karl Rudolph Gerd Von Rundstedt, ace strategist who directed the enemy break-through in the At. dennes last winter, Brought to Lieu- tenant General Patch's U. S. 7th Washington, D. C. RUSSIA AND ALLIES SAN FRANCISCO. -- To the aver- age outsider, the most difficult thing to understand about this conference is the attitude of the Russians. Poor press relations, plus a few inept moves have melted down a large mountain of goodwill built up by the valor of the Red army. In a few short days they have destroyed much of the favorable sentiment in Latin America, and through no fault and the tempo of the world in. of ours, won us more friends below creased so that it provided another the Rio Grande than we ever had world war which called for another before. international gathering within 26 One of the things Molotov did in years; came San Francisco, another San Francisco was to invite two "Big Three" and the growing but prominent Latin - American deleo still the unknown "x," the power of gates to dinner at the Russian con- the people, sulate, along with a few carefully selected Europeans. Latin guests Molotov Lived Up were Mexico's tall, handsome For- To His Name eign Minister Padilla, and Chile's First, to evaluate the "m" in our aristocraticForeignMinisterJoaquin equation, it is necessary to take a Fernandez Y Fernandez, who is rap- took which goes back to Paris 1919 idly assuming a new leadership in and even reveals faint images of Latin America. Vienna, 1815. Molotov drank a toast to Chile There is no question that "m" and her new establishment of diplo- (standing for Molotov) was the matic relations with Russia. conference at San Francisco in the "There are so many Chileans who early period, at least, but there was want to become Ambassador to Mos- a vast difference between his opera- cow," joked Foreign Minister Fer- tions and those of Clemenceau. nandez in return, "that it is one of Clemenceau could and did unloose my greatest problems." Mexico's a bag of traditional diplomatic tricks Padilla, apparently on excellent on Lloyd George and Wilson and terms with Molotov, said: "All Latin" soon proved that his white-gloved, America would be pleased if our gallic hands were quicker than two sister republic, Argentina, was ad- pairs of anglo-saxon eyes. mitred to the conference." Clemenceau wanted security for Molotov, in mellow mood, seemed France and elimination of Germany to register no objection. as a competitor in world industry. Mood Changes. Molotov wants security for Rus- But a day later the mood was dif- sia. elimination of any danger of ferent. Padilla arose in secret ses- poiitical competition from the "capi- sign to propose Secretary Stettinius talistic" countries. But he wears no as permanent chairman of the con- gloves, kid or otherwise. This, per- ference. Molotov promptly objected. haps, is not because he, personally, He pointed out that four countries is inept in the amenities of diplo, had invited the other nations to at- matte relations, but rather because tend this conference and that the he is under orders, with no latitude representatives of all four host of compromise whatever unless countries should rotate as chairman. Stalin grants it. And Russia, an out- Foreign Minister Padilla then de- law among nations after the Bolshe- llvered a recitation of previous vik~revolutlon, has only begun to precedents where the nation which take its first faltering steps beyond served as host also acted as chair- the pale of its own prejudices and man. When he had finished, Molo- preoccupations. And the bear steps toY, who had already pointed out furtively, blinded by suspicion, hy. that four nations were hosts, got up persensitive because of well-justified and remarked: past doubts and fears, i"! am glad to be lnstructoa ia By the second day of the confer- d ptomaUc precede,re by the ence Molotov had deeply grieved the delegate el Mexico, b~t appar- Latin Americans. When the suave ently he ~relmrod his little and persuasive Ezequfl Pad]lid. speech before he heard my Mexican foreign minister, in urging "dew." the election of Secretary Stettinius Padilla, who had not read his as president of the conference re- speech, was taken aback. He mum- marked that it was merely following bled something about always being diplomatic procedure and courtesy prepared when he attended a con- to elect the representative .of the I ference and sat down. After a long. country playing host to the confer. ] hot debate. Molotov won his point. ence, Molotov is said to have re-~ But the manner in which he jumped plied that he hoped no one was try- on the Mexican lost him friends. A ins to give him lessons in diplo- matic procedure and as for courtesy ---this was not a tea party. Molotov is the commissar's "nora. de-guerre." It is an old communist custom to take pseudonyms, e.g. "Stalin," man of steel." Molotov means "hammer." And that is what the benevolent-looking gentleman from Moscow wields, not the rapier of the diplomatist. Thus. when he "controlled" the conference, he did it as a man swinging a hammer might--the rest had to get out of the way. But hammer swinging is not always suc- cessfuE The rapier wielders in the case I mentioned quickly circum- vented the issue of the conference presidency by obtaining an agree- ment that there would he four presi- dents as the hammer-swinger de. manded but--their powers would all be delegated to Mr. Stettinius to con. duct the business of the conference. ~Today's Talleyrand has much to learn in the school of soft gloves. And so we come to the delta, the strength of the spirit of the people. As I write these lines within the building where the committee meet. ings take place, the fate of the con- ference has not been settled but I am assuming it is about to conclude, having achieved its job which was merely to complete a blue.print for world organization. Its later ef- fects cannot Yet be assayed. But I can say at this point with absolute assurance that t~ the blue-print is not produced the ~'opies of the vs. rious representatives will figurative. ly fall upon their delegates and tear them limb from limb. If the blue. print is produced and if the organ. l~atlon operates effectively and sue. ces~'ully the credit goes to the demos the "absent voters" at San Francisco, who had no vote at Vien. na and didn't know how to use what they had at Paris, And so the task of our mathema. flelan becomes the task of the recta. phyalcisL He must discover the power of the aplrlt ot the Imo la. lot of Latins, Jealous of PadiUa'a bril- liant oratory, previously had been opposed to hi~. But Molotov veered them in the opposite direetlon. Next day, in secret session, For- eign Minister Jan Masaryk at Czechoslovakia, a nation cooperat- ing with Russia, pointed to the va- cant chair of Poland and moved that the Lublin government be admitted. Foreign Minister Subasieh of Yugo- alavia, also close to Russia, sec- nnded the motion. Whereupon, An- thony Eden white.faced and prim, emphatically opposed. There fol- lowed more hot debate. Finally, to break the deadlock, Foreign Minister Spank of Belgium proposed a compromise resolution expressing sympathy with Poland and hoping that she could be ad- mitted soon. Genial, rotund Ambas- sador Caceres of Honduras, a great friend of the U.S.A rose to second Belgium. Whereupon Molotov cracked back: "Notwithstanding the support of the Republic of Honduras, the Soviet Union stands by its position." Delegates ~tariled. A note of biting sarcasm rang through Molotov's voice which startled the delegates. It sounded as if the powerful Soviet Union, rep- resenting the greatest land-mass in the world, was trying to put the tiniest republic ha Latin America in Its place. Again, Russia lost more ~riends. And later when the vote was taken on seating Lublln Poland, |l,e lost that @leo. These are smme ot inp almut the ~mmim~ th~ take - lot of w~lle~t~li~go O~ his peMt on ret~U~ tire e~p, flnal]~ mt In t/nlu' Idaoe. he did am'exOe/lemt ; Job. He get off a ~ |s~ sbeut being glad the eanferemee We~hl now lmve mm elq~ortunlty to h~e Rumdm pnmeeded to die tlm mmsk~ In most