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May 24, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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[] [] VOL. XXVI. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA THURSDAY, MAY 24, 1945 i WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS Truman Warns Japs to Quit as LI.S. Shifts Weight to Pacific; More C iv!( anteGoOdSo,JO Come (EDITOR'S NOTE: When opinions are expressed In these columns, they are those of Western Newspaper Union's news analysts and not necessarily of this newspaper.) POSTWAR SECURITY: i Regional Pacts Against protests that such ar- rangements would narrow the ac- tivities of a general security organ- ization and eventually displace it, ~ South American nations pushed for recognition of regional defense sys- tems at the San Francisco confer- Based on the Act of Chapultepee North Sea FatnAN NL Flags identity Allied forces occupying German territory in accerd- nnce with postwar pinns. In addition to Russia taking over the east, the BriUsh the northwest, nnd the Americans the south, the French reportedly are to occupy the Rhineland. ONE FRONT: Speedy Shift Despite persistent reports of Sap peace feelers, America is going full speed ahead for an all-out war in the Pacific follow4nt Germany's un- conditional surrender, bringing the European conflict to an end after almost six years of the bitterest fighting in history. No sooner had CoL Gen. Gus- tav Jodl officially thrown in the sponge for Germany on orders of Fuehrer Karl Doenitz than the American high command geared it- aeif for a shift to the Pacific, wi~ plans calling for retention of an army of 6,968,000 and navy of $,389,000; the transfer of many air wings to the east to supplement Super-Fort raids on Japan, and the shipment of almost 3,000,000 troops from Europe within a year. At the same time, however, pro- vision was made for keeping 400,000 American troops in Germany to oc- cupy the southwestern part of the country while the French take over the Rhineland, the British the north- west and the Russians the east. Way Out Reading the handwriting on the wall even while Germany was still hanging on the ropes, Sap business- men, seeing their industries being re- duced to rubble even before t h e U. S. could throw her full weight into the fray, reportedly made indirect ap- proaches for peace, If such is Japan's ]Pres. Tremm8 intent despite the recent announce- ment of her government offieials about a fight to the finish, Pres. Harry S. Truman was seen as offer- ing the Japanese an opportunity to give up and still save face by his detailed definer/on of "unconditional surrender" in a V-E day statement. Then, the President said: "It (unconditional surrender) means the end of the war. "'It means the termination of the influence of the military leaders who have brought Japan to the pres- eat brink of disaster. "It mearm provision for the re- turn of soldiers and sailors to their fa~es, the/r farms, their Jobs, 'It means not prolonging the pres- ent ago/iF and suffering of the Japa- nese in the vain hope of victory." In sk/fting U. S. strength to the Pacific, the services plan to ship some construction, supply and main- tenance forces directly from the European theater, while moving the bulk over through th~ oountry. Map Movements Including some 1,0G0,000 troops with extended combat records, who ,are ~to be released along with the ~wounded ,and overaged, the army will ~bei~g f~;000:men home in the .fie, st quarter after V-E day; 1,18S,000 in the Heond, and 807.000 in the third. Those who will be retained for the Pacific war will be given a 30-day furlough, then reassigned for dutT. Need for staggering the return of troops from Europa stems from the gi~ntie task of transferring equip- meat for the Pacific war. Ac- oording to estimates, from 00 to 75 per cent of materiel in Europe will be fit for shipment to the Pacific theater. More Goods Though war production will con- tinue to dominate U. S. industry until the Saps quit, civilian Output should increase in proportion to t h volume of material and manpower freed from army cut- backs, About 1,500,- 000 workers prob- ably will be re- leased by contract cancellations within the next six months, War Mobilization Director Fred Via- Fred Vinson son estimated, with ano~er 3,000,000 let out after that. But all should find ready employment in reconversion, expansion and basic industries. Washing machines, vacuum clean- ers, radios and furniture should be available in limited quantities with- in a year, Vlnson said, and some automobiles should also come off the assembly lines, though not; enough will be manufactured to meet demands until 1948. With textiles and leather continuing to re- main scarce until the Pacific war ends, the government will push up production of low-cost clothing and non-rationed footwear. With the nation's food stocks be- low requirements, rationing will be maintained, with meat, sugar and butter in the tighest supply. With civilian gas allotments up 100,000 to ,u How Discharge Plan Works Over 100,000 men s month are to be discharged under the army's soparstton system bued on vet's credit of 85 Iminla, with 1 point for every month of service sines September, 1940; 1 point for every month of over. seas oulaJde the U. 8.; 6 poin for every combat award imeh ns the dl agnished sorldes cress, the purple heart or haffie Imrticl- potion stars; tml 15 poinM for every dependent ehlld under 18 up to a limit of three. 200,000 barrels daily, "A" and com- mercial card holders may be al- lowed small ration increases. Though more tires may become available, an acute shortage will persist. Allied Terms Having v~nqulshed Germany, the Allias showed no diapnsltion to soft- en up in the imposition of terms, with extended military oceupation aimed at a clear supervision of in- dustry, finance and government to prevent rebirth of mflitarimn. According to ooeupatien plans, the British have taken over the most highly developed industrial terri- tory of Germany along with the Im- portant North sea purts; i the Ri~ sinus the heavy wheat and grain growing districts and "L/ttla Ruhr" of Silesia; and the U. S. the agrleul- tural area of the southwest. Long sought by the French for its military as well as Industries im- portance, the Rhineland reportedly was assigned to them. Prize plum of this territory is the Saar coal land, which provided the French with i one-third of their prewar solid fuel. drawn at the recent Pan-American convention in Mexico City, the South American proposal envisions the use of force to repel aggression against any of the Latin republics without awaiting the official sanc- tion of the international security or- ganization, any of whose major members might veto such a move. An extension of the Monroe Doc- trine, the plan thus preserves pri- mary responsibility for the secu- rity of an area in the hands of coun- tries immediately concerned. Discussion of the regional security proposal came as the U. S. and Brit- ain tried to reconcile their differing views on postwar trusteeships over conquered territories after the war, with this country standing for ex- clusive use of military bases upon strategic islands and the British in- sisting upon control subject to the security organization. Meantime, sentiment in congress grew for unfettered U. S. use of any postwar bases in the Pacific vital to defense in the area. Since this country primarily will be responsi- ble for keeping the peace in the Pa- cific, Senator Byrd (Vs.) declared it should not be subject to supervision by any other nation or group. "It's little enough for US to ask," said the senator. SUGAR: i New Problem Latest of the food problems con- fronting the nation is sugar, with re- ports that the 1945 Cuban crop will tall 790,000 tons short of the 1944 harvest, pointtD8 up the' tight supply expected to persist throughout the year. The report of the smaller Cuban crop came in the midst of the house food committee's investigation of the sugar situation, with evidence indi- catlng that manpower shortages, Importation ot twelva mlfl~m short to~ ot toods will bs neck. sary to improve livinf conditions liberated n~ion~ arld to prwe~ ~trva~On in enemy t~wrisory in Continental Europe thb year, o~. cording So am sntdysis eomple~d by the o~e of [orelgB eg~ relations. This total would co~ist largely ot wheat but should also in. elude substantial quantities o[ late, animal protein [oods and mgu, the report rays- ~art~r ol tood conditiom, on the continent indi. cats the Jood supply this year will be /ram 50 to 70 per cont ot the prm~" energy ~ke. bootlegging and inaccurate apprais- supplies of the commodity have con- tributed to the tight situation, the committee found, the lndustry's in- dication that adequate stocks ex- isted led to ~onsumption of about 800,000 tons more last year than originally allotted. SUPREME COURT: Award Miners Drawn after laborious parley be. tween companies and union repre- sentatives, the new soft coal contract was clouded by a Supreme court de- cision,holding that miners were en. titled to pay for full underground travel time under the Wage8 ~and ~ours law. Thus. the high court's ruling up- set the new contract's provision that such pay was to be made on the bee is of an average of all miners underground travel time. and at the same time allow for a reexaml- oation of the pact. In line with a previous Supreme court verdict covering iron ore miners, the latest decision came at a time when negotiations between hard coel miners and operators had begged over differences in under- ground travel pay. WAR COSTS: High Toll With the war half-won, U. S. casu- l alters total over 9~0,000 and mill- tary expandlhwas 8~6,000,000,000. Late reporM showed 147,164 cas- ualties in the European theater, with the army reporting 19g,40~ dead. t4ff,408 wounded, ~A~?4 missing and 52.000 pri~ers; ~ L ' ~ ~ 8,416 dead, |,fil|' 'w0~nd~l, $94 mhming and ~ prisoners, and the marine corps 34 dead, 1 missing, 1 wounded and 3 prisoners. Hav e eedy spent m6 000, 000 on the war, government expendi. tures will remain high during the Aapanese war and for 8ome time after to finance veterans' care, pen. sions, benefits and interest on the public debt, presently at ,000 000.000. Old Pitfall Stand in Way of Future Peace Survival of German Myth, Desertion Democratic Elements Would Weaken Postwar Security Structure. of By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, Union Trust Building, Washington, D. C. SAN FRANCISCO. -- California sunshine is pouring down on the bay, a great white fog has begun to drape the distant, gray-green hills in the folds of its floating robe. It has been a day of conferences and interviews where the great tragedies of little countries---Al- bania, Korea, Poland--and the little differences between great countries have been tossed at us, in vibrant earnest voices, in stiff and proper ac- cents. It would be easy to lose sight of woods for the trees. But as I sit here leafing over faded notes of an- other such conference, I know that the tremendous goal for which these delegates have striven is so much higher, so much wider than all the little controversies that it still is just what the chambermaid in my ho- tel said it was. She wa# gray haired. She had a aon on Saipan, 8he told me. and when I asked her what she thought of this gathering she laid down an armful of linen and looked up. "I guess this is Just about the most Ira- portant thing that ever happened," she said, "trying to stop wars." How impgrtant this meeting will prove to be depends on how well the world avoids the pitfalls which wrecked its last attempt to treat war as we treat disease; not as something that we irreverently con- sider as an act of God, like a tor- nado, but something to which man- kind is exposed through ignorance and Indifference and which can be prevented. Why did the League of Nations fail? What are the pitfalls which the United Nations must avoid: Germans Thought Armies Unbeaten I have been talking over that Paris conference with a friend whom I met there--a, quarter of a century ago. He lived with the League of Nations through it8 early uncertain days, on until its death of malnutrition. Together we agreed on certain fundamental mistakes made in the past which must be avoided if the result of the San Francisco conference is a success. The object of the United Nations is the same ss the object of the League of Nations: to stop aggres- sion before it starts, l~ast time. of. forts were directed specifically to- ward Germany as the one potential aggressor. Germany has been so utterly defeated that she cannot strike back for a long time but our conduct toward Germany after the last war ean be related to all fu- ture attempts at aggression. The first mistake made last time, namely, allowing the myth to grow up that the German army was not defeated, that other causes enfforced capitulation, cannot be made again since the German army is now de- stroyed. But there is danger that another myth may grow which will encourage nazi-fascism elsewhere. Even if the so-called German gov- ernment headed by Admiral Doenita formally capitulated to the Allies in. stead of having the various gener. ale surrender separately, the Naz/s might well claim that they them. selves never did surrender. A very good legal case might be made out supporting the thesis that Doenitz was not the authorized head of the German government and that government still existed in exile. Whether Hitler and Himmler are dead makes no difference. No proof can be adduced that Doenitz is the authorized successor to Hlt]~r. There has been no recognized revolution which could be recognized first, de facto, then de Jure. We do not know that Hitler author. ized Doenitt as his successor. We do know that he had publlcly indicated certain successors. I saw and heard him do it in the Reichstag meeting in the KreU opera house In Berlin on September 1, 1939, when he announced that he was gains to the front to Join the :army already invading Poland. I saw him turn from the lectern and indicate, first Herman Gearing, sitting high on the praesidium as his successor, ff he failed to return and second, the tall and lanky Hess sitting in the first row on the roB- trum. Thqre has never been any other official designation of succession by the German government. When Hit. ler made that pronouncement Doe- nitz played no role in the Nazi party --he was just another naval officer. Therefore it would be easy for whoever claims official fuehrership to have moved into Norway while it was still in German hands, take a long-distance submarine and fine asylum and support in some country which would conceal his identity and where ,sufficient sympathy for nazi. fascism existed, to carry on under- ground activities and foster the myth of the immortality of nazi-dam Just as the myth of the German army's invincibility was kept alive. That is one thing that apparently is not realized. It is important. It must be watched. Now there are a number of other pitfalls which I might mention but I won't spend too long over these faded notes with fresh breezes from the Pacific reminding me that we are living in the land of tomorrow and not yesterday. But alas, some of the dark shad. ows of yesterday have stretched down the years to today. Selfish Interests Stunt Democracy One of the great mistakes which the peace-loving nations of the world, as they now call themselves. made the last time was that they failed to help the democratic ele- ments in Germany against the very reactionary or national elements which made World War H possible. At present there is no question about elements in the German gov- ernment for it ls under Allied mill. tory rule. That problem Is some distance in the future. But here at San Francisco and wherever the ex. ecutive council or the assembly of the organization planned here may meet, the same question will arise. We have s concrete example In the question of Argentina, not too important in itself, but intereating insofar as it reveals whose selfish political and economic interests af. fect world affairs. Certain countries wanted to renew normal business relaUons with Ar- gentina. Great Britain has a great interest in Argentina because of her trade and Canada because the financing of many institutions there was hart. died through Canadian hanka. The representatives in the Mex- ico City conference yielded to this pressure and when they came to San Francisco could not reverse their position. Russia looked on, chortled, and said: Democracies aren't so democratic after all if they invite a fascist government to Join up with them. This Is not too important but it is an example of what must be avoided If the United Nationa really champion the" cause of democracy throughout the world. But the strong hope of avoiding the p/tfalls of the last Ume lies in the interest, the participation of the people. The people of America. As I sit here in San Francisco and see the earnest effort of these men of all creed and color, I feel they have the wiU to peace. But their voices all cry in the wilderness unless the people support them. I look over these gray-green hills and think--into thine hands, the hands of the people of America. In order to provide agrieulturel k~formation to servicemen and vet- erana of this war who are interested In agriculture, the USDA has ar. ranged to place kits containing sam. pies of available information in aration oanters, hospitals, libraries and vocational guklanee and retrain. Ing centers of the army, navy, aft. force& and the Veterans administra. ties. In cooperation with Washingto- representsflves of the varietal branches of the armed forces and the Veterans administratlo,% these kits will be available for review fn approximately 1,000 places in the continental U. S. and overseas. As. eompanYing each kit will be a suP- ply of order blanks on which the veteran or serviceman can order from the departmant by a simple check mark, any Item or group of items he may want. Among the materials being offered are several general publications de- signed to help the agriculturally in- clined serviceman or veteran decide whether or not he reall~ dons want to become s farmer. NO. 50. DIPLOMACY AT SAN FRANCISCO SAN FRANCISCO. -- By all odds the most skillful diplomacy game at this conference has been played by dapper, dignified Anthony Eden of Great Britain. He has managed to come out as the friend of all' sides, and most important of all, the mediator between Russia and the United States. In other words, Eden has com- pletely reversed the previous role of President Roosevelt, who up un- til his death had acted as the medi. ator between Churchill and Stalin. The Churchill. Stalin rivalry wan not merely personal It was his- toric. It was based not only on the fact that Churchill Just after the last war, urged the sending of Allied troops Into Russia to help the White Russian generals overthrow the em- bryo Bolshevik regime, but that he flirted with the Cllveden set which in 1939 advocated war between Rus- sia and Germany while England sat on the side lines. This w&8 the basis for the per. sonal suspicion between him and Stalin. But historically, Churchill was carrying en~ a eentery-old Brith~ policy of i~ luting Russia. For 100 years, tke country with the greatest mass in the worM, Rusoin, had been kept without a warm-water seaport by Britain, the country the greatest navy in the world. That rivalry was the reason for the Anglo-Japanese alliance, where- by the British, working through Japan, helped to stop Russia from getting Manchuria and a warm- water port on the Pacific. That rivalry was behind Britain's sphere of influence in Persia (now Iron) to prevent Russian use of the of Persia. That rivalry was also the cause of the Crimean war in which the BHflsh fleet and British troops actually landed on the same spet where Churchill, Stal/n and Roosevelt later held their Yslta conference and waged a bloody bat- fie to prevent the Czar from eOmo /rig down to the Dardanelles and get- ring an outlet through the Mediter- ranean. Finally this 100*years-old Russo- British rivalry was behind Britain's taking Latvia, Lithuania. Estonia and Finland away from Russia after the last war to blook her outlet to the Baltic sea. Ro@sovelt Sits in Middle. That rivalry continued during the Teheran. Yalta conferences, with Stalin and Churchill both trading against each other and Franklin Roosevelt sitting in the middle. At Teheran the argument wan over a second front through the Bal- kans whleh Churchill favored, or through France, which Stalin fa- vored. Churchill wanted the Ale lied armies to get into the Baikano-- Russia's sphere of influence -- and thereby keep the Russians out, He didn't want Allied armies ruining factories and alienating the popuia. tion of western Europe--which was to be Britain's sphere of influence. In the end Roosevelt tipped the scales in favor of Stalin--toward a second front through France. Once at Teheran, Churchill trying to poke a little fun at Stalin, said: "Marshal, I have noticed that When- ever anyone comas into contact with YOU they become slightly pink." To which Stalin replied: "And Mr. Prime Minister, any good doctor will tell you that pink ia the healthiest Of all colors." and Roosevelt. wanting to Pour on on the troubled waters, ~id: "GenOa, let me re. mind you Umt there is nothing mere beautiful than an the eel- ors of the ralnbew." But at the end, as C~kurekl[! bade farewell to 8tslin, the e wee still tension between them. '~ell, goodbye, marshal, said the prime min/ster, "I'll see you In Berlin." "Yes," shot back Stalin, "I in a tank and you in a pullman ear." Loee Out Roosevelt was shrewd enough to continue as m/d~ffe man e~en et Yalta, despite the fact that he was slipping phys/eally. He kept both Russia and Great Britain In the posltio~ of Playing uP to the United States. lose of that strategic bargain- ing power la,th& mo~t important de- veloPment of this conference, Stag. tinfns has lost what Roosevelt had and Anthony Eden has elaverlF stepped into his Place. The United States has now slipped into the position of being the shies Hval end ~.e~t/a/opponent of PUs* eia. while Eden has maneuve eo that England site in the n clla, able to throw wo/ght to one s/de or the other,