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May 24, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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--- I IIII THE BILLINGS COUNTY PIONEER i Weather Enters Big Business Field of i World s Armies, Navy, armsI By WALTER A. SHEAD t WNU Staff Correspondent. There is one thing in which the nation's farmers and our military leaders have a com- mon stake . . . an element which can upset the most carefully laid military plans and the most meticulously planned agricultural program ---the weather. The farmers' success in planting and harvesting and American combat success in combined land-sea-air opera- tions can come only through close observance of the scien- tific predictions of the weath- erman. For' the weather is often used as a military weap- by our military strategists, and our farmers are depend- ent upon the vagaries of the weather to harvest a record production, or a crop failure. No military operation---whether it is a minor sortie by a group of fight- ers, a bombing mission on an enemy city, naval bombardment of a Jap Island, a ground attack in China, or a large scale invasion---is never blue- printed unless latest weather infer- mat/on is first consulted. Success of an attack is ofttimes dependent upon clear weather, though American forces have profitably exploited bad weather to make offensive strikes against the enemy. Our military strategists were quick to recognize the impor- tance of accurate meteorological data, and so have greatly ex- panded the network of observa- tion posts, trained thousands of officers and enlisted men and adopted new technological de- vices to guarantee reliable fore- casts. Together, the AAF, the navy and the U. S. Weather bureau weather systems form a vast network of information, research, observation and forecasting reaching from the United States to all parts of the world. Observation units vary in size from two men occupying a hut on an isolated Atlantic or Pacific isle to a major research station with a full staff of specialists. The AAF maintains several major research centers and more than 1,000 observation and forecasting stations reaching from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and its weather report system spreads and moves as rapid- ly as the fighting fronts. The nerve center of this vast, scattered weath- er force is in the Pentagon build- ing in Washington where approxi- mately 250 persons watch the weath- er in all regions of the world and prepare long-range forecasts and special studies to guide our high strategy planners. Navy Maintains Stations. The navy maintains about 1,400 observation and forecasting stations, including about 14 major weather "'centrals." In some instances aerological units may be aboard flagships or aircraft carriers, or on advanced island bases and the units may consist of one man on a small ship or s full-fledged "central" with a full complement of 100 or more officers and men. How the navy weather bureaus have grown since 1940 may be seen by the fact that in that year navy aerology under the bureau of aero- nautics consisted of less than 200 of. ricers and men in about 50 units, whereas today the personnel totals about 6,500 officers and men as- signed to the 1.400 units. The AAF staff of weather specialists nurnber~ 20,000 officers and men, and the force of observers alone has grown from 50 to 10,000. Service provided by these thousands of forecasters in- This photo shows the effect of weather on the soil on a south Pacific island. This truck is really mired. eludes technical operation and interpretation of results record- ed by radio-sonde, s small box containing a single-tube short wave transmitter. Sent aloft on a balloon, the transmitter gives temperature and humidity read- ings at various heights. There are also repair technicians schooled in the maintenance of delicate weather instruments, communications men who radio or teletype weather reports back to headquarters, and aircraft weather reconnaissance fliers, who observe conditions along the flying routes. According to the Office of War In. formation, the AAF and the navy weather forces have been made pos- sible by the careful selection of men from the ranks to specialize in weather information, by intensive Germany took advantage of bad, overcast weather, with rain and snow to make their counter-attack in the Belgian bulge in the Ar- dennes. Low visibility and cam kept our superior airforce grounded, until clearing weather gave us a break. station training and by releasing personnel from the weather bureau for military duty and replacing them by new civilian recruits. Weather Importm~t Weapon According to' our military men ac- curate evaluation of weather, plus the constant flow of up-to-the-minute meteorological information from all theaters of war, make it possible to use weather as an important weap- on. Cited as examples of weather strategy is the Sicilian invasion. Plotting of prevailing winds and of the movement of cold air front over Italy indicated our invasion ships 1 Excessive rain has caused a landslide on a military road somewhere I am the llall~ front. J would encounter rough seas on the journey from North Africa. But at the same time our forecasters pre- dicted tranquil waters in Sicilian harbors, and the almost miraculous calming of the seas as our landing craft neared the Sicilian shores has become a military classic. Admiral Halsey took advantage of the cover of a "zero-zero" storm aft- er raiding the Marshall and Gilbert Islands. With visibility zero and ceiling zero, his ships, large and heavy enough to ride out the storm," were meanwhile safe from enemy air attack. At Rabaul detail plotting of the upper air strata enabled our forces to lay down a smoke screen to blot out our vessels and our planes from Japanese ack-ack and dive bomb- ers. Low wind velocity was required so that our screen would not sud- denly veer and cover our target in- stead. Conditions were exactly at predicted and ordered. Many other instances of the use of weather forecasts by our militarists are given, for in- stance in the Norm~dy inva- sion, weather was had and the sea choppy, but the forecasts were that severe conditions would prevail for at least 21 days after the D-Day chosen. Axis Are Weather Conscious. Both Germany and Japan are ex, tremely weather conscious and both have used weather, particularly bad weather, to screen their activites. For instance, Germany's battle of the bulge in the Ardennes was un- doubtedly arranged to coincide with bad weather that would keep our su. perior air strength incapable of d~ cisive blows, while German grounfl forces, numerically stronger at that point, smashed through. A clearing break in the weather came ulti. mately and our air power went i~to action to help stop the German Of. fensive. According to the navy, the Jal~ are not as far advanced in weather technique as either Germany or our own military. In at least one instance a Japanese plan of action did not work out as scheduled be- cause of their weather miscalcu- lations, They attempted to bring reinforcements to New Guinea un- der a storm front so that our planes could not spot their movements. An unexpected or miscalculated shift dissipated the storm front. The troop and supply-armada was spot- ted by our reconnaissance planes. They were attacked and destroyed by the AAF in the famous Battle of the Bismarck Sea. Methods used by various countries in weather forecasting vary. The AAF and the navy use the Norwe- gian theory of air masses and polar fronts and the long series.of daily weather charts of the world pre- pared by the weather bureau as a basis. Research Essential. Almost endless research was nec- essary to code the world's weather data. Starting in 1942 the weather bureau, in cooperation with the miR- tary services, started in this task using all available weather informa- tion in the northern hemisphere for each day since 1899. This informa- tion was replotted and reanalyzed, transferred into a standard code an4 into a punch card system. In thl'~ way 30 years of weather were ehar~. ed andmnalyzed within a year. From the areas studied by the army, high priority sections, where military ac- t/on would most likely take place, a similar card system was evolved and total weather tabulations to date cover about 55 million cards. At present about 500000 cards are re. corded each month. From Arctic to Antarctic Vast Army of Weather Experts Combined military operations plans are contingent on ideal weath- er conditions for all four participat- Lug combat sections: air, ground, se~ and amphibious. Weather plans for air operations must include pre- invasion conditions for softening up ss well as air support on the inva- sion day. Ground conditions will in- clude soil trafficabillty, whether or not soft will support movement of heavy vehicular equipment, air sta- bility and wind velocity, for use of chemical Warfare. smokescreens, etc. Sea conditions must be favor- able enough to permit the large ships to launch small craft with safe- ty and amphibious commanders are concerned with on-shore and off- shore winds and surf conditions. So the weatherman's task is to dis- cover conditions which will be most nearly ideal for all four operations and how many days such conditions will prevail. Plans can then be made accordingly. Work for the United States By comparing the current day's maps with the finger-print maps, chosen by weather experts from those maps indicated by the card. machine selection, the past weath. er most nearly like that of May 15, 1945, is chosen. It may have been February 23, 1929. With this map and the map for the succeeding days in 1929, the weather expert can see how the high and low pressure groups moved, can study other me- teorological data. (No. 30) AI~STRACT OF STATEMENT For the Year Ending December 31, 1944 Of Tbe Continental Insurance Company. located at New York, in the State of New York. Aggregate amount of admitted assets $131,722,090.34 Aggregate amount of liabUlties lexeept capital and surplus) . 40,364,992.11 Amount of fully paid-up Capital Stock 5,000,000.00 .~urolus over all liabili- ties $0,357,098.23 Aggregate |acolyte dur- lng the year 36,341,797.32 Ag~'regat e d isbursemenl s durin~r the year 32,322,075.64 NOI~,TH DAI~OTA BUSINESS Premiums received dur- ing the year $ $7,960.69 Losses ineurre~l during the year 54,815.59 Losses paid during the year 51,526.59 STATE OF NORTII DAKOTA, | Office of Commissioner of Insurance. ] I, S. A. Olsness, Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true abstract of the original statement now on file in this office. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and affixed the seal of this Office at Bismarck the first day of May. A. D. 1945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, | Office of Commissioner of Insurance. ] COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY Whereas, The Continental Insur- ance Company, a corporation organ- Ized under the laws of New York, bas filed in this office a sworn statement exhibiting its conditiou and business for the year ended surance, and Whereas. the said Company has filedin this office a duly certified copy of its charter with certificate of organization in compliance w, ith the requirements of Insurance laws aforesaid. Now', Therefore, I, S. A. Olsness, Commlssiptler of lnsuran ce of the State of- North I)akota, pursuant to the provisions of said laws, do hereby certify that the above named Company is fully empowered through its authorized agents, to transact its appropriate business of Authorized Insurance in this state according to the laws thereof, until the 30th day of April, A. D. 1946. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and sea] at Bismarck, this first day of May, A. D. 1945. ~. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. (No. 29) ABSTRACT OF SqPATEMEN~Ip l~or 4he Year W.ndlng December 1944 Of The Connecticut Fire Insur- ance Company, located at Hartford, in the State of Connecticut. Aggregate amount of admitted assets $28,042,145.09 Aggregate amount of liabilities(e x c e p t capital and surplus) $10,004,669.01 Amount of fully paid-up Capital Stock 2,000,000.00 Surplus over all liabili- ties 16,037,276.05 Aggregate income dur- ing the year 8,928,740.95 Aggregate disbursements during the year 8,495.840.60 NORTH DAKOTA BUSINESS Premiums received dur- lng the year $ 12,294.76 LOsses incurred during the year 2,111.19 Losses paid during the year 1,904.38 STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA. | Office of Commissioner } of Insurance. | I, S. A. Olsness, Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true abstract of the original statement now on file in this office. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and affixed the seal of this Office at Bismarck the firs~ day of May, A. D. 1945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insuranc~ STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, | Office of Commissioner of Insurance. COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY Whereas, The Connecticut Fire In- surance Company, a corporation or- ganised under the laws of Connec- ticut, has filed in this office a sworn statement exhibiting its condition and business for the year ended December 31. 1944. conformable to the requirements of the laws of this state, regarding the business of In- surance, and Whereas, the said Company has filed in this office a duly certified copy of its charter with certificate of organization in compliance with the re0uirements of Insurance laws aforesaid. Now, Therefore, I, S. A. Olsne~ Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, pursuant I to the provisions of said laws. do l hereby certify that the above named ] Company Is fully empowered through its authorized agents, to transact its appropriate business of Authorized Insurance In this state according to the laws thereof, until the 30th day of April, A. D. 1946. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) nnd seal at Bismarck, this first day of May, A. D, 1945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. STRENGTH IN NUMBERS Jimmy- If you were walking along a dark road near the ceme- tery at night, how would you protect yourself? Johnny--I'd" whistle, "Haft, Hail, the Gang's All Here." War Conditions Ckmtomer--I want to buy a pair of shoes. Clerk--Sorry but we don't carry shoes in stock. Customer---What kind of a drug. store is this anyhow? Well Trained Jones--I hear Brown got a Job as bus conductor. What did he know about that kind of work? Smith--Oh, he'd had lots of expe- rtence. He used to work in a sar- dine factory. (No. 32) ABSTBLA'~T OF STATEMENT For the Year Ending December 31. 1944 Of The Eagle Fire Company o~ New York, located at New York, in the State of New York. Aggregate amount Of admitted assets $ 2,6~4,662.90 Aggregate amount of liabilities (e x c e p t capital and surplus) !,043,137.53 Amount of fully paid-up Capital Stock 1,000.000.0O Surplus over all liabili- ties 601,525.37 A~gi'egate income dur- ing the year 960,013.89 Age regat e disba rsements duriag the year g94.754.78 NORTH DAKOTA BUSINESS Premiums received dur- ing the year $ 3,950.74 Losses incurred during the year 1,034.09 Losses paid during the 3'ear 1,044.09 STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, | Office of CommiSsioner } of Insurance. / I, S. A. Olsness, Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true abstract of the original statement now on file in this office. In Testimony Whereof, 1 have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and affixed the seal of this Office at Bismarck the first day of May, A. D. 1945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, | Office of Commissioner } of Insurance. | COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY Whereas, The Eagle Fire Com- pany of New York, a corporation organized under the laws of New York, has filed in this office a sworn statement exhibiting Its condition and business for the year ended December 31, 1944, conformable to tlle requirements of the laws of this state, regarding the business of In- surance, and Whereas, the said Company has filedin this office a duly certified copy of its charter with certificate of organization in compliance with the requirements of Insurance laws aforesaid. Now. Therefore, I. S. A. Olsness, Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, pursuant to the provisions of said laws. do hereby certify that the above named Company is fully empowered through its authorized agents, to transact its appropriate business of Authorized Insurance in this state according to the laws thereof, until tbe 30th day of April, A. D. 1946. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and seal at Bismarck, this first day of May, A. D. 1945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. (No. 26) " ABSTRACT ON' STATEMENT Fos the Year Ending December 31. 1944 Of the Citizens Insurance Com- pany, located at ~Flemington. in the State of New Jersey. Aggregate amount of admitted assets--~- .$ 4,233,176.$9 Aggregate amount of liabilities(e x c e p t capital and surplus) 798,166.50 Amount of fully paid-up Capital Stock 1,0O0.000.00 Surplus over all liabili- ties 2,435,010.49 Aggregate income dur- ing the year 735,47~.61 Aggregate disbursements during the year 571,052.92 NORTH DAKOTA BUSINESS Premiums received dur- ing the year $ 27,296.96 Losses incurred during the year 6,277.09 Losses paid during the year 7.352.1~ STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, | Office of Commissioner } of Insurance. | I, S. A. Olsness. Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, do hereby certify that the foregoing Is a true abstract of the original statement now on file in this office. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and affixed the seal of this Office at Bismarck the first day of May. A. D. 1945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, / Office of Commissioner of Insurance. COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE ON' AUTHORITY Whereas, The Citizens Insurance Company, a corporatior~ organized under the laws of New Jersey, has filed in this office a sworn state- ment exhibiting its condition and business for the year ended De- cember 31, 1944. conformable to the requirements of the laws of this ~tate, regarding the business of In- surance, and Whereas, ths said Company has filed In this office a duly certified copy of its charter with certificate of organization in compliance with the requirements of Insurance laws aforesaid. Now, Therefore, I, S. A. Olsness, Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, pursuant to the provisions of said laws. do hereby certify that the above named Company is fully empowered through its authorized agents, to transact its appropriate business of Authorized Insurance in this state according to the laws thereof, until the 30th day of April, A. D. 1946. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto s~t my hand (SEAL) and seal at Bismarck, this first day of May. A. D. 1945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. Ouch: Jerry--I'm surprised he didn't pay you. I thought that guy had some good points. Harry---Yeah, so have pins. Bui they'll stick you. Scarlet Fever? Jimmy--ItoldMabelher face was too red. Johnny--Don'tyouthinkthatwas Just a little rash? Pun in Love Girl--Thanks for the hugl ' Boy--Not at all. The pressure was all mine! Bad Credit Jones--I will be everlastingly in- debted to you if you'll lend me five bucks. Smith- That's lust what I'm afraid'of! PERFECT FEED Clerk--Did you get good results out of those seeds I sold you the last time? Customer--rll say. My neighbors chickens were never plumped! A (No. 242) BSTRA~T OF STATEMENT I~or thn Year Ending December 31. 1944 Of the Franklin Life Insurance Company. located at Springfield. In the State of Illinois. Aggregate amount of admitted assets $65,562,178.55 A~gre~ate amount of liabilities 60,547,699.03 Surplus aver all liabili- ties (including capi- tal paid up) ~,014,479.49 Aggregale 14~eome dur- ing the year 13,761,131.27 Aggregate disbursements during the year 7,303,741.34 NOP.TtI DAKOTA BUSINESS Premiums received dur- ing the year $ 84,005.30 Losses incurred during the year 3,665.77 Losses paid during the year 3,665.77 STATE OF NORTII DAKOTA, | Office of Commissioner } of Insurance. i I, S. A. Olsness, Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true abstract of the original statement now on file in this office. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and affixed the seal of this Office at Bismarck the first day of May, A. D. 1945. C S.A. OLSNESS, ommlssioner of Insurance. STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, | Office of Commissioner ~. of Insurance. / COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY Whereas, The Franklin Life In- surance Company, a corporation or- ganized under the laws of Illinois, has filed in this office a sworn state- ment exhibiting its condition and business for the year ended Decem- ber 31, 1944, conformable to the re- :tuirements of the laws of this state, regarding the business of Insurance. and Whereas, the said Company has flied in this office a duly certified cbpy of its charter with certificate of organization in compliance with the requirements of Insurance laws aforesaid. Now, Therefore, I, S. A. Olsness, Comnlissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, pursuant to the provisions of said laws. do hereby certify that the above named Company is fully empowered through it : authorized agents, to transact its appropriate business of Authorized Insurance in this state according to the laws thereof, until the 30th day of April. A. D. 1946. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and seal at Bismarck, this .~rst day of May, A. D. 945. S. A. OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. (No. 238) ABSTRACT 01~ STATEMENT For ths Year Ending December 81. 1944 Of The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States, located at New York, in the State of New York. Aggregate amount of admitted assets $3,507,963,461.20 Aggregate amount of liabilities except surplus dividend funds and special urplus funds 3,260,230,481.5~ Surplus, dividend funds and special surplus funds . 227,752,979.67 Aggregate income during the year. 628,378,650.1~ Aggregate disburse- ments during the year 318,394,409.64 NORT~F DAKOTA BUSINESS Premiums received dnr- . ing th, year $ ~86,548.41 ,~osses incurred during . the year 166,326.66 oases paid during the year 149,737.23 STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA. | Office of Commissioner } of Insurance. J I, S. A. Olsness, Commissioner of Insura~aee of the State of North Dakota, do hereby certify that the foregoing is a true abstract of the original statement now on file in this office. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto set my hand (SEAL) and affixed the seal of this Office at Bismarck the first day of May A. D. 1945. S. A." OLSNESS, Commissioner of Insurance. STATE OF NORTH DAKOTA, Offlce of Commissioner of ~[nsurance. COMPANY'S CERTIFICATE OF AUTHORITY Whereas, The Equitable Life AS. surance Society of the United States. a corporation organized under the laws of New York, has filed in this office a sworn statement exhibiting Its condition and business for the year ended December ~I, 1944, con- formable t6 the requirements of the laws of this state, regarding ths business of Insurance. and Whereas, the said Company has filed in this office a duly certified copy of its charter with certificate of organization in compliance with ths requirements of Insurance laws aforesaid. Now, Therefore, I, S. A. Olsnsss, Commissioner of Insurance of the State of North Dakota, pursuant to the provisions of 8aid laws. do hereby certify that the above named ~ompany is fully empowered through its authorized agents, to transact Its appropriate business of Authori~.ed ~nsurance in this state according to the laws thereof, until ths ~0th day og April, A. D. 1946. In Testimony Whereof, I have hereunto ~et my hand (SEAL) and seal at Bismarck, this first day of Ma~'. .4. D. 194L s. A. OLSN SS, Co mm}ss)oner o~ !nsurancs. Picture Gallery Dresden's world-renowned picture gallery, the Zwinger, was originally the vestibule of a royal palace built to rival Versailles. It housed Raphael's "Madonna of San State," end masterpieces by Holbein, Titian, Rubens and Van Dyck. The Ma- donna, purchased in 1753 by Dres- den's art-loving king, Augustus III, was hung in the throne room. The story goes that the king shoved his throne aside with his own hands in order to place the picture in the most advantageous position. Tire Life Motorists' habits affect tire life so markedly that it is possible to deduce the driving habits of a car's operator if you can compare his average tire mileage with that of other drivers in the same area, it is said. Quick stops and starts, taking turns at high speed, running tires at subnormal inflation or at high speed, greatly reduce tread mileage. Fertilize Grapes Grapes like any other crop will never grow unless the vine has plenty of fertilizer. Apply. one or two pounds to a vine, depending upon your fertilizer program of the last few years. This rate is for ordinary garden fertilizer such as a 5-8-7 or a 5-1-,5. The latter is the analysis of the present victory far. den fertilizer.