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The Billings County Pioneer
Beach, North Dakota
June 21, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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June 21, 1945

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/ [] [] VOL. XXVII. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA THURSDAY, JUNE 21, 1945 NO. 2. j sWEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS- - I Foresee Invasion as YanksI I Tighten Noose on Home Is!ands; I Peg Meat Supply at Present LeveL I -- Released by Westrrn Newspaper Union. Western Newspaper U-ion's news anAIYs~ and not Captured on Luzon island in the relish cans of U. S. army C rations. PACIFIC: No Halt Though fighting on Okinawa was as tough as that on lwo Jima, re- sults have been the same, with the gradual U. S. conquest of the island pressing home the immediate dan- ger to Japan proper, 325 miles to the north, b With Japan already hard hit Y air, the enemy looked for an im- minent invasion of the homeland, with propagandists seeking to as- sure the people of the strength of well.provisioned underground for- tiflcations, long in the making to thwart any landings. Having fought through the maze of interlocking Jap caves on Iwo Jima and Okinawa, American sol- diers viewed any undergrot~d forti- fications in the enemy homeland as an elaboration of the defensive sys- tems on these outlying islands. Though heavily battered after ter- rific aerial and artillery bombard- ment, they were only cleared by steady, concentrated U. S. fire from close-up, plus the gradual exhaus- tion of supplies. Even as U. S. ground troops re- duced Okina~va with its valuable air fields for raids upon the enemy homeland, U. S. fliers were busy hammering at Jap industrial cen- ters and supply lines to China. With the American fleet dominant in Pacific waters, U. S. aircraft took off from carriers to plaster enemy shipping plying between Japan and Korea, thus forcing the Nipponese to use a more round-about route far- ther north to get into China or else try to break the bloackade at night or in rough weather. Harassment of this route came on top of the U. S. sea and air threat to the Japanese overwater supply line from their conquered South Pacific possessions, and the Chinese pres- sure against the enemy's overland corridor running the length of the east coast of China. Meanwhile, Superfort bombard- ments of Jap industrial centers con- tinued apace, with the B-29s extend- ing the devastation of already heavily battered homeland cities. EUROPE: /lUted Snag Reworking of the occupational zones in the face of Russian de- mands for greater territory, and the Reds insistence that U. S. and Brit- ish forces withdraw from fringes ,of their proposed holdings, slowed up organization of machinery for co- ordinated Allied administration of the beaten country. The snag in plans followed the U. S lqritish, Russian and French declaration stripping Germ'any of all Hitlerian conquests and restor- ing its 1937 borders, and placing all of the material and human re- sources of the country at the dis- posal of the Big Four. Severe as the declaration was, it left the door open for further alteration of the German frontier, and imposition of addition- ,al regulations for governing the people. As the U. S. and British repre- sentatives at the Big Four meeting /n Berlin, Gen. Dwight D Edsen- hewer and Field Marshal Montgom- ery visited the battered German capital for the first time since its fall, leaving shortly after the sign- ing of the declaration because of the inability of the Russian dele- gate to proceed on joint control ac- tion until settlement of the latut claims of Moscow. Recognition of Russian demands for additional occupational terri- CONGRESS: Back Bretton IV.ods Having voted to extend the recip- rocal trade treaty act for three years and grant the President power to cut tariffs 50 per cent under ex- Isting levels, the house also el~ proved the Bretton Woods monetary agreements as part of the adminis- tration's program for participation in world economic stabilization. Passed by a large vote against the opposition of a handful of Re- publicans, the agreements include: 1 An 8,800,000,D00 dollar fund 1 of currencies of 44 or more United Nations upon which any member country could draw to ob- tain foreign exchange at a stable rate for eonducting business; A 9,100,000,500 dollar world bank for reconstruction and develop- ment, with the various governments either loaning money directly or guaranteeing any private loans Plan Just and Speedy Trials for Nazi Biowios Allied Commission to Handle Cases of High Leaders; Local Officials to Prosecute Minor Offenders. By BAUKHAGE News Am|y#| and Commentator. WNU Servlee, Union Trust Building, Washington, D. C. The legal profession is about to meet the greatest challenge it has ever faced. The Moscow declaration, pub- lished November I, 1943, ~nd signed by President Roosevelt, Prime Min- ister Churchill and Premier Stalin, declares that "those German officers and men and members of the Nazi party" who are responsible for or made. As has been the case ever since the announcement of the agree- ments, chief opposition centered around the 8,800,000,000 dollar cur- rency fund, designed to prevent up- ward dr downward fluctations in the value of different currencies. According to opponents of the plan, who have taken a consenting part in sound currencies would be drawn "atrocities, evidence of which has from the fund, leaving only the un- been received from authoritative stable money of countries not ads- quarters in many countries," will be i quately required to straighten out "tried, judged and punished" accord- Jug to the laws of those countries. I their economic affairs. risonersI This same declaration also de- Philippines, these Jap war p BERLIN: clares in its final paragraph that 'major criminals whose .offenses ! Dead "City have no particular geographical In- tory would give the Reds eontrol of Entering Berlin over a monthcallzation" will be tried and dealt half of Germany and include the after its capture, U. S. newspa- with by "joint decision of the Gov- cities of Leipzig, Gotha and Erfurt per correspondents found a city ernments of the Allies." and the whole province of Thurin. of death, strangely quiet with That is where the United States gin presently held by the U.S. piles of brick and masonry and and the challenge of its legal profes- steel heaped along the streets; sion comes in. SAN FRANCISCO: seared and gaunt walls sticking The body which will try these "big ruins, and all about the sweetly- shots" is an international military Break Log ].am up like jagged teeth amidst the With Russia s agreement to per-sickening odor of death, tribunal, to be designated by an of- mit the discussion of disputes by Though the Russians have ficial title, probably by the time the security council of the United pressed for the clearance oxthese lines are printed, and it is be- Nations' postwar peace organiza- some streets for motor and fore this court that a member of the rich, the log-jam hoIding up the con- pedestrian traffic, and installed Supreme court of the United States, clusion of the San Francisco confer- emergency surface water piping Associate Justice Robert H. Jaek- ence was broken, in some sections, Berlin re-son, chosen as American chief of In insisting that any of the five mains the terrifying example of counsel, will appear as prosecutor. major powers have the right to veto the fate of present-day cities He will act jointly, It is presumed, with ~he counsels of the United King- the discussion of a dispute, Rus- subjected to the fire of modern dam and the Union of Soviet Social- Sla almost stood alone throu, gh t~ee warfare, weeks of prolonged bickering, v, nat- As Americans motored throughist Republics. ly giving in after consultations be: this fantasy of destruction, some Legal Body tween U. S. Envoys Hopkins and of the 2,000,000 of surviving Bar- Without Precedent Harriman with Stalin in Moscow.liners living in cellars or pure- Though the agreement permits dis- meled lower stories of burned- Never in history has such a legal cussion of a dispute without danger out buildings emerged from body been convened. Never has such of veto, any of the Big Five can their hapless shelters, dazed a task as the one it has before it vote down proposals for formally in- and unkempt. They are living on been of such potential significance to vesflgating the trouble or calling meager rations and have no the social and political well-being of the peoples of the earth--never, at for peaceful settlement, fuel. The only men seen werele'ast, since the day of a certain Re. One of the outstanding issues of old and tmshaven, man procurator of Judea in Pales- the conference, the veto question ranked in importance with the sub- FARM MACHINERY: tine. Pontius Pilate was unable to face his responsibility, and finding Production Problems ~ects of international trusteeships Mexico's Foreign Minister EzequJel Padilla (left) and U. S. Secretary of State Edward K. Stettinius at San Fran- cisco parley. and regional pacts, also resolved after lengthy deliber.a.ti ns:. In.thse" matter of the trusteesmps, me u. was granted unqualified possession of Pacific islands wrested from the Japanese and needed for American defense until congress should de- cide to-turn them over to the peace organization. Under the agreement on regional pacts, groups of nations banded into cooperative units can try to work out their own problems before submitting them to the se- curity council of the postwar peace organization, or resort to self defense if attacked without waiting for league action: MEAT: Peg Supply cat In addition to steering more - tie to federally inspected packers to permit greater distribution,of meat across state lines ano cumng out all lend-lease or relief meat ship- ments through july-August-Septem- ber, the government also reduced military allocations to allow a pro- po-.-tionate increase in supplies to civilians. Even so, the severe meat pinch will endure through t~le suture: months, with prospects for Dmprov merit in "the fall when increased marketings should not only permit greater supplies for civilians bUt also resumption of Umfted sh/p- meats overseas. Though the government ehopp.ed militarY allocations dove. tO ~ zt,- 000,000 pounds for j my.August tember, and peggea clv~an a.uoff- meats around present lev.els or ~,- 740,000,000 pounds, the amoun.t available for home consumption remain dependent upon supplies in the quarter. During April- May- June, supplla tell below govern- ment goals. , Despite easing of manufacturers restrictions in June and the sched- uled removal of all quotas in JulY, farm machinery companies are run- ning up against a shortage of parts and manpower in producing sorely "that he could prevail nothing, but rather that a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands " The United States does not intend to wash its hands of the responsibil- ity before it. needed implements. Tnere seems to be a welter of con- me mos~ sermus Of the parts, . fusion as to just what the function ra and malleable shortage is in g Y of this 'military tribunal" is; as to s including cyhnder blocks ~astin~ " " iust what ff any, policy has been for tractor engines and rear a~e established by the "Office of the the inch housings. Because of P : Chief Counsel for the Prosecution of Though the manpower shortage is it can be reac general in the industry, the scarcity gon in Washington. Soon it will as- is particularly felt in the foundries tablish foreign headquarters. producing c~stings. Throughout the I Despite the confusion, this Institu- entire war, foundries have experl- I finn has a definite policy and I shall enced difficulties ohta:l~.x~goyeT::linterpret it informally,hereunder: necessary amount of P I (I) We shall avoid the law s de, leading to wage increases in some i . es to attract workers i lay which so annoyed Hamlet instanc ) My reason for this assumption is achmery manu- Because farm m . It he fact that Justice Jackson did continued output during ~-cturers " I pot retire from the Supreme court. in a favored " the war, they stand "od I The fall term of the court begins in econversion perl , position in the r " inte) October. Already he has made one e of the mar char ed with crimes against human not only becaus . tlve faeilltie; ~ trip to Europe for the purpose of nonce of their proauc tinuation I rounding up key wltnesses and dec- but also because of the cons sands I ements and is now beginning final of their contacts with the tn B~ -c ~ preparation for the prosecution. His nm ou~ ne of tur" g " I staff has been assembled for several essary small parts. ~ weeks and he has coordinated the U. S. CASUALTIES" 1 other government agencies interest- ,t ~ ed in war crimes (war department, ]Vest Front Ion,navy department, Office of Strate- p a million for all branches,glc Services, and others). Authority To ping ~-^r U S I for this action is vested in Execu~ of service sinee.l~ear' ~t~g~'' ;ga~s;| five Order 9547 of May 2, 1945, which Itles in the fig g casua " . - ~-,~--- to-| named Justice Jackson as Amer- Germany alone sinceu-u~: I . tailed 514,534 or an average of 1,52~ } scan prosecuwr. a Of the 514,~, 89,477 were I Jackson himself said when he was a d y. -- dad and 57,8T/ [ appointed: "There will be no delay killed, ~'~,zov w~, I on,the part of the United States, and msssms s- undue delay is itself a fall A ainst the 514,534 losses su l we think oA~ by the 80 U. S. combat dirt-,ure." "? ----sing the Germans, 14 ~ (2) There is no confusion as to SlOnS o]F~ British and Cenad/~ d/visions in- ~ United ~tates policy with respect to GI~ casualties, including 1 the type of offender to be tried. Many currea ,~, f qa 5~9 Idlled, 1~6;14~ wounded and i individual eases have already neen. ~" French dirt- t ,~repared, though not yet announces. 18 388 nussmg. ~.~ v~ , slon, ca,unities and As .i one~.~ ~-:~ S trooI~ reported [ the big shots, that is JacKson's ;oo-- ~,qsnners yet to ne recovere~, 1~,or.auc~ ~-a ~"'-- -- "-- ~'~,e l~'en [ a#ainst members o~ any |mgJe was sam. ~'~ "~-'-'-~-"-:--~ng'mon't~ ) ~,ovnmunlty To put it broadly, those taken as such m m. ~,v~, s of the campaign, when the d/so g~n- ] g - . izat~on of the Nazis prevented the,lty as a WhOle. official listings of prisoners, This rules out the persons brought back to the scene of their crimes, Wssh mgton, D. C. *GOOP BOMBS' HIT gAFAN WASHINGTON.--The inside story of how the army and navy are burn. lag up Japan's main cities, block by block, may now be revealed at least in part. The two greatest contributions to the burning of Japan are the B-2~ and a new, still somewhat mysteri- ous fire-bomb known as the "goop bomb." Just how the "goop bomb'" got its name isn't known. However, the trials of spies and saboteurs it's the most terrible fire spread- which are coming up daily, offenses er in the world. Part of its secret against American nationals or is an oily mush developed by petro- against Germans, or individual acts leum chemists. This makes the con- of persecution against Jews or oth- tents of the bombs stick in gluelike era. ~ gobs to anything it hits, making it almost impossible for Japanese fire- In other words, Jackson is after fighters to scrape it loose. big game and he will not be content to fiddle with minor offenses even if However, what really made committed by major criminals. His the bomb the most terrible in job will be to nail those leaders who the world was experiments car- are responsible for engineering the tied out by some of Henry Kai- whole general criminality of the ser's West coast scientists. They Nazi-Fascist program. The smaller found Ifmlser had a surplus of fry will be taken care of by other fast burning, white-hot magne- legal authorities at the scene of the slum production on his hands, individual crimes or elsewhere, and they also knew one at the greatest difficulties in making Jackson Versed magnesium is its high explosive content. So they experimented As Prosecutor . wRh mixing magnesium dust in Justice Jackson's reputation and the oil of the bomb. his record are a pretty good guaran- This magnesium dust lights up in~ tee that he will not be stumped a searing blaze as soon as it comes by any hurdles that international in contact with air. Result is the lawyers might try to put in his hottest fire ever known. way. But that does not mean he Most important effect of the "goop will "railroad" the accused. He will bomb ' is that no known fire-fighting not let the trials sink below a dig- equipment can douse its flames. Wa- nified Judicial level. 2~hey must be, ter only adds to the blaze; as do he says, "trials in fact, not merely any of the other specialized fire- trials in name, to ratify a predeter- fighting chemicals. All the Japs do mined result." On tlte other hand, ! now against the "goop bomb" is to he does not believe that "every step try to confine the area in which it must be taken in accordance with burns, not put it out. technical common law rules ofThis is one reason for lnereas- proof." His record shows that he / ing optimism about an early end is a "direct actionist"--he can be of the Jap war. expected to pull no punches. @ t I said this was the greatest thai- I CONTINUED CENSORSHIF lenge the legal profession had ever ] With the European war over, co- faced. I said ihat because upon the I eryone expected press censorship to manner in which these trials are lease up. In some respects, how- conducted wiil depend Just how I ever, especially in the Pacific, it is clearly Naziism w/ll be revealed to~ getting tougher. the people of th~ world In its true light These criminals must convict I Not only are newspapers barred themselves and their philosophies ~ from even speculating regarding certain international phases of the out of their own mouths. They must I Pacific war, but the navy for some not be allowed to stand before the world with their testimony and that weird reason hushed up the bombing of their accusers as a background, ] of the airplane carrier Franklin as martyrs to what Jackson himself from April 26, when She got to New eaIls "farcical judicial trials" which York, to May 17, when the dis- rationalize previously settled opin- ascer finally was announced. There ions. This would destroy the con- were obvious reasons for keeping the fidence of the people in the whole news quiet while the ship was en case for democracy, he believes. Nor route through the Panama canal. must the case against them be pre- But once it passed the canal and seated in such a manner as might was safely tied up in New York, all give even the skeptical a false aug- danger was past, however, the navY gestion that the enemies of democ- still invoked censorship. racy have a vestige of right on their * * * side. AMERICA'S NO. ONE "HEEL The small but efficient staff which Former OPA Administr~tor Leon Justice Jackson has selected Is Henderson is a sad man these days. worth looking over. Every time he picks up the news- There is MaJ. Gen. William Done- papers, he reads story after story" van, colorful World War I hero and telling how Washington has given successful lawyer, now head of the some manufacturer permission to OSS; Sydney Alderman, a distin- produce again. guished trial lawyer and general so- Henderson recalls how he gained licitor of the Southern Railway; the reputation of being "America's Francis Shea, assistant attorney No. 1 heel," by cutting down the general and well versed in compli- American civilian consumption to al- cared litigations; Naval Lts. James most zero. Donovan and Gordon Dean. Done- "If I could only change all that," n " van is general counsel of the OSS. moans Henderso . If the President Dean, a former assistant attorney would only give me a job for one general under Jackson when he was week--just one short week--in which head of the department of justice, is I could give the people back some a brilliant and successful lawyer who of the things I took away from them. is being transferred from active Then folks wouldn't think I'm such duty by the navy for the job.a bad guy after all." There are no hand-washing Pen- * * flus Pllates among them. DIPLOMATIC CHAFF * ~ South Africa's prime minister Jan Christian Smuts seldom, speaks but The rise in income payments to when he does, every one listens. individuals in the Unlted States from K Jan Masaryk, Czechoslovakia's an annual figure of $66,168,000,000 in foreign minister, has been the most the prewar year of 1938 to a record effective go.between in conciliating high total of $156,794,000,000 in 1944 Russian-western differences. was extended during the first quaro ~. Sen. Glenn Taylor of Idaho has ter of 194~, according to the Alex- used only five gallons of gas since ander Hamilton Institute. Income arriving in Washington--an example payments during the first three which could be emulated by a lot months amounted to $39,825,000,000 of other bigwigs. this year as against $37,726,000,000 last year, an increase of 5.8 per cent. ~. Secret service Is on the trail of a Income from every source showed counterfeiting ring which has cir- expansion. Salaries and wages rose eulated hundreds of thousands o~ from $27,857,000,000 to $28,628,000,000, I spurious one dollar bills They" an increase of 4.8 per cent, while I all bear the same serial number, dividends and interest rose from ~ are considered one of the cleverest $2,4,54,000,000 to $2,770,000,000, an in. [ Jobs recently pulled. crease of 12.9 per cent. ( ( One reason General Elsenhowe~" . Although spending by consumers I and his staff have been so upset was at a record high rate during ~ about congressmen visiting the bate the first quarter, it is evident from / fie zones is that when the Germans preliminary lnformaUon that con. ] counterattacked la~ December, the sumers' income exceeded spending / Nazis sent a power~ paratroop by an amount sufficient not only to ~ force "to take, the little ~avr~ meet taxes but to add to consumers' ] of Cernay. Had they landed one wartime savings, thus increasing the ~ week earlier to ~ hour, they would threat of inflation when peace re.[ have captured the entire house ( military effalrs carom/tree deled- turns, i tinn tben in Francs.