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The Billings County Pioneer
Beach, North Dakota
June 28, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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June 28, 1945

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/ [] [] VOL. XXVII. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, June 28, 1945 -------WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS A4enace Early Jap Conquests; Ask Overhauling of Vet Bureau; Smoothen Big Three Relatiohs estern Newspaper Union's news analysts and not neeeeonrily ' For the first time since Nazis came to power, the Korean Catholic feast day of Corpus Christi was observed in Munich, with procession wending way through bomb-battered city. Outspoken foe of Hitler's regime, Michael Cardinal Faulhaber officiated at ceremony. PACIFIC: New Campaign Under heavy attack in the northJ ere portion of their empire, the Japs face equally heavy pressure in the south, with Allied forces un- der command of Gen. Douglas Mac- Arthur moving into northern Borneo in a drive to conquer the island that easily could be the prelude to a campaign against the Indies and Malaya. Rich in off and rubber and pos- sessing good ports and airfields for a thrust to the west, Borneo was overrrun by the Japs early in 1942 while the Allied cause in the Pacific still remained paralyzed after Pearl Harbor. With Jap shipping coming under increasing U. S. air and sea pressure, Borneo's value to the enemy has been sharply re- dueed, and Allied invasion forces met only meager opposition as they moved inland .in the mountain- ous country. Though only lightly defending the comparatively communicable coast- al regions, the Japs did fire the ex- tensive oil installations located there in an effort to prevent their use by the Allies for future opera- tions. Flames from the storage tanks and wells could be seen for 40 miles. VETS CARE: Legion, V.F. IV. Critical Stung by the American Legion and V.F.W.'s ringing denunciation of the veterans administration bureau, congress moved to look into the whole question and give ear to the comprehensive program outlined by both service organizations for effi- cient functioning of the department. With a spokesman declaring that the bureau may eventually have to handle the cases of 18,000,000 G.I.s, the American Legion suggested the Creation of a deputy administrator under Gen. Omar Bradley and a realignment of authority under six assistants to handle medical care, insurance, finance, loan guarantees, readjustment allowances, vocational training, rehabilitation and educa- tion, adjustment of compensation, pension and retirement claims, con- struction supplies and contracts. Though criticizing the overall op- erations of the bureau, the Ameri- can Legion and V.F.W. particularly rapped vet hospital care, charging that 47 per cent of the institutions now give inadequate treatment and citing instances of abuse in some centers. To relieve conditions, the organizations proposed increasing bed capacity; boosting wages; al- lowing authorities more leeway in securing help and supplies; more intelligent segregation of patients to speed recovery, and replacing army with civilian personnel. BIG THREE: Smoothen Relations Troubled relattous over Poland having been seemingly smoothened, the Big Three looked forward to their forthcoming meeting for plan- the peace conference to reestab- lish the b~4cen continent of Europe. News of the approachLng ,1318 Three confab fonowed~announe~ ment that officials of the U. $ Brit. ain and Russia would meet la Moo. cow with the Red-sponsored War- sew government and democratle leaders from within and outside of Poland to discuss the composition of a more representative regime for the country. Instrumental in smoothening Big Three relations were Harry Hopkins and Joseph E. Davies, President Truman's special emissaries to Moscow and London. Following re- ceipt of reports from them upon their return to the U. S the cider executive expressed, confidence in a settlement of the Polish question. declaring the Russians were as an- xious to get along with us as we are with them. The late President Roosevelt's No. 1 confidante, Hopkins appeared to have played an especially key part in the discussions abroad, with Mr. Truman revealing that he not only conferred on the irksome Polish situation but also persuaded the Russians to surrender their de- mands for vetoing the right of ag- grieved nations to air their com- plaints before the postwar peace organization. While the step toward bringing together the dissident Polish ele- ments was considered an encourag- ing move for the development of a With his Chief of Staff Adm. William H. Leah standlnS by, President Truman re- eeiveYs report of overseas missions o[ jo- seph Davies (left} and Harry Hopkins (right). representative rule, the Polish gov- ernment in exile in London denied the authority of the Big .Three to supervise formation of a regime for the liberated country. Not directly included in the Moscow parley and long at loggerheads with the Reds because of alleged political inter- ference in Poland, the exiles branded the plan as a concession to the Russians. BIG HARVEST: Mounting Problems Even as the department of agri- culture predicted a bumper wheat yield of 1,084,652,000 bushels for 1945, along with another banner gen- eral crop year, Kansas undertook the harvest of 215,000,000 bushels of its winter wheat with a heavy shortage of both men, machinerY, storage and transport. Premier winter wheat producing state of the U. S Kansas needs an additional 20,000 hands; 2,000 com- bines; 2,000 trucks; and many ra- t/on points for feeding extra work- ers. Because of the local elevator glut resulting from the freight car shortage, farmers expect to dump sizable quantities of wheat on the ground after filling up vacant houses, store buildings, filling sta- tions, etc. Typical of the problem confront- tug other southwestern states, sas' transport situation devolves from the inability of the rellroads to divert su~clent ~trs for the grain trade in the face of heavy war pro- duetinn traffic end fl~ redeploy- ment of U. S, fore8 to the ~Paelfl~ thlw gh ent : In the face of impending harvest and transport dlfll~~'Ities, the USDA looked forward to not only a bump- er wheat harvest but heavy oats, hay and rye production, and another banner truck and fruit crop. De- spite wet weather, two-thirds of the corn croP has been planted, USDA said. OPA: Frtrm Prices Passed by the senate as part ofI a bill extending OPA for one year, a provision requiring that farm pro- ducers be granted cost plus profit headed for rough treatment in the house, with Pres. Harry S. Truman joining to oppose the amendment Drawn by Senators Wherry (Nob.) and Shipstead (Neb.) and adopted by a 37 to 30 vote. the cost-plea pro- vision stipulates that "it slmll be unlawful to establish or maintain against the producers of any live- stock, grain or other agrieulinrsl commodity a maximum prloe . . . which does not equal all costs and expenses (Including all overhead expenses, a return on capital and an allowance for the labor o the producer and family) . . . plus a reasonable profit thereon. While President Truman de- scribed the provision as bad and hoped the house would knock it out, other critics declared that it would create confusion by replacing the present parity formula, scaling farm prices according to general costs. Countering this argument, Senator Wherry said the provision would apply if parity prices failed to meet expenses. SUGAR : Set Quotas Though distribution of sugar through the first five months of 1945 exceeded that for the same period in last year, the War Food adminis- tration fixed rigid quotas for govern- ment and civilian users for JUlY- August-September, with the home front obtaining 10,000 less tons than at present. From January through May, dis- tribution of sugar totalled 2,955.906 short tons sompared with 2,747,543 last year, it was revealed. Reflecting criticism that the im- pending sugar pinch has resulted from loose allocations of the com- modity in the face of over-optimism over supplies, figurej showed that as of June 2 raw sugar stooks amount- ed to 275,746 short tons compared with 442,234 last year, the beet in- ventories totaled 374,052 short tons as against 465,222. Bombs Take Heavy Toll A commander in the lamed U. $. 21~ bomber terce in the Marienm, CoL AlJred F. K~berer, estimated th~ 500,000 /apenese had been killed in B.29 raids on Tokyo, with the sibility the ~re might even poe ~ , I be 1,500,000. Look at Yokohama, I he said. "One minute it is there and the next it has disappeared, I believe we killed 250,000 there." Because burns caused by B.29 fire bombs require the care ot two or three people and the Ja.panese lack the personnel to attend to the in- juries, one 21st ~orce medic opined the death rate must be enormous, i Klaberer said. SAN FRANCISCO: Peace Force With French delegate Joseph Paul- 3oncour declaring that the confer- ence was erecting "the keystone of the peace structure," the United Na- tions meeting in San Francisco ~noved to approve plans for th~ first international army, navy and air force in history. Directed by a military staff com- mlttee, with regional sub-commit- tees throughout the world, the world peace force may draw on one.third of the U. S.'s present army and navy. Pjuerican authorities re- cently estimated. All members of the United Nations will have to grant the international force free right of passage through their territory in the event of hostilities. Use of the peace force will be subjected to the unanimous ap- proval of the Big Five--the U. S Britain, Russia, China and France-- and a majority of the security court- col of 11. SHIPYARDS: Workers Needed The rush of workers to peacetime Jobs is seriously impeding the con- structlon as well as repair of war vessels, the navy revealed, with the situation equally serious in beth west and east coast shipyards. With damaged v~ls receiv- ing first eJdl on ft~flifles for re- lmir, the building d new |dsipe neceesarily must await their fix- ing. With the Brooklyn navy in need el, S, O00 sdditieMI workers at ewe, the new ~JJe0- tea sircr~ cstrl~r Jbl~4SSl j" ~e month, ~ scl~lslo sml Both east and west enast shipyards have been losing about 000 em- plnyees a month in the shift to peacetime |obs, with the tight man- power situation in the west reflected by the necesmt7 to tow the famed flattop Franklin to Brooklyn for re- pair. Reconversion No Great Obstacle to Industry Many Factories Making Consumers Goods For Services; Numerous Others to Require Only Minor Changes. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, Union Trust Building, Washington, D. C. Reconversion has begun and it looks as if one prediction, made back when conversion had been ac- complished with many an ache and groan, would come true. Then the experts predicted that reconver- sion would be easier than conversion. Eighty per cent of the factories, we are now told by officials of the department of commerce, will not have to do a major reconversion job. This is largely because many indus- tries now furnishing supplies to the military will continue to manufac- ture the same supplies for oivllians-- clothing, food, printing, electrical appliances-you can think of a whole lot of others yourself. It will be no great problem for the makers of such products to shift from one mar- ket to another--from Uncle Sam to John Q. Consumer. Some industries whose present final product differs considerably from the civilian goods they make won't have such major difficulties either. It will please the ladles to learn that even the folks who have been making parachutes will have little or no trouble changing back to stockings. The nylon people sim- ply have to change spools. There are a number of other pre- dictions concerning the future of businesses, big and little, and one of them is that 40 per cent of the industries, although they won't do the business they are doing today with Uncle Sam as a customer, will have a bigger demand to meet than they had in the boom year of 1929. And this condition will continue, say the prophets of profits, for two or three years on the impetus of the present pent-up buying power of the nation. If we keep our heads meanwhile, there is no reason why the period of prosperity cannot be extended. But what about the other types of business which were expanded by war demands for products which won't have any civilian market? Well, our American business inge- nuity and our native mechanical in- ventive genius, they tell us, are go- tng to step into the picture again. Then there will be the natural evo- lution which will eliminate the be- low-average busineh man and es- tablish a survival of the fittest. Yankee Ingenuity To the Fore What started me off on this topic was a typical example of how this inventive genius, stimulated by war demands, has laid the foundation for turning what started as a little two-room factory into a big, small- town business. The man with the inventive genius is a frequent Wash- ington visitor these days. His name is Burl E. Sherrill. The name of the town is Peru, Ind population 13,000. Sherrill is a modest Hoosier genius in his forties who managed to make a living from tinkering and selling the patents on the gadgets he invented. Then one day he made something he liked so well he didn't want to part with the idea behind it, so he decided to manufacture it him. self. It was a popular-priced mag- netic compass for use in steel- bodied automobiles and trucks. Sherrill rented three offices right on the publie square of Peru, turned them into his factory and started out. Soon he began to expand, push- ing lawyers, doctors, real estate men out of the way. But I am getting ahead of my story. Sherrill was a born inventor, al- though he didn't realize it and start- ed off to study law. After two years at the University of Chicago he found that his hunger for the law was appeased, his hunger for three meals a day was not. He went to work managing a little neighborhood shoe store In Chicago. This gave him a chance to tinker in the MRch- en.laboretory in his fiat. Then he got chance at a Job back in In- dlan~-repairing radios in Peru. ~als.gave him Iotsof opporttmit?~t~~ tinker and he patented inventions and sold them, which bolstered his income considerably. Finally he evolved the compass which he wouldn't part with. He was able to hire a smart,staff of worMers.-then : came the war and no more civilian autos. But there were lots of military co- hlcles and after our blind tanks had lost themselves in the African des- errs, Washington found out about Sherriil and gave him the challenge of making a compass for use in mo- torized equipment of various kinds. Sherrill went to work and produced his models. The Carnegie Institute, the army engineers and the war college looked them over and put their okeh on them. The inventor moved downstairs and took the whole first floor of the building on Peru's public square. The 20 men who had assembled the auto com- passes were increased to 125 working at a regular assembly line. Next came a call from the Mari- time commission. A compass for steel lifeboats was needed. Like the tanks, too many had been left to wander on the high seas blind. Fur- ther inventive genius was required for this Job for a steel lifeboat passes much of its life on the steel deck of a ship. A few months ago the new compass was approved and pro- duct/on is now under way. Some day, of course, the last war order will arrive at the factory in Peru, but because of the war.stimu- lated ingenuity of one man, a prod- uct has been created, the demand for which will continue for such war machines as are still needed plus a demand for civilian use which will return the moment restrictions on motor travel and transportation are over. In addition, I understand from Sherriil, a new hearing-aid i8 in the making. War a Spur to Many Entrepreneurs To reconvert to the manufacture of civilian products, no change of machinery or assembly line nor any retooling will be neeessary at the Sherrill factory. Nor will the number of employees have to be re- duced. Of course, not many inventors are endowed with enough business sense to run plants of their own. Sherrill appears to be an exeeption. When he got his first army order, he was asked when he could deliver how many compasses. He named the fig- ure and the day and what is more he lived up to his promise, which was more than many manufacturers with less foresight and more unfore- seen hurdles have been able to do. There are other inventors and oth- er business men who, like Sherrill, have received from war demands the stimulation which will push them ahead and carry them through the breakers of reconversion. Sherrill himself has no technical education. He calls himself a graduate from a junkpile. But he can talk with the scientists and the experts and, what is more, he makes the pictures he draws on his drawing board, some- times in the small hours in pajamas and slippers, work. ~He has the typical American in- genulty shared by thousands of oth- ers who helped win the war for us and who will keep us from losing the peace. Recently a listener wrote in with a suggestion that a fitting memorial for the late President Roosevelt could be provided in a manner which would aid the bend drive. She sug- gested that "if bonds were contrib- uted for a memorial commensurate with our sorrow and regret, by the time these bonds matured we would be able to buy the most magnif- icent memorial in the world in honor of our greatest President." Then she concludes: "I am one of the many 'little people' who would gladly contribute a small bond now, but may not be able to give anything Later." The psychology of that suggestion is interesting. Regardless of what the purpose of a fund might be, what a splendid way of raising it and thus achieving exactly what the govern. meet wishes to achieve by the sale of bonds: the double purpose of so- curing cash to dt4ray war expenses and aiso reducing the amount of in- flationary pocket-money. It struck me as such a good idea that I sent it along to Ted Gamble who is in charge of such matters in connection with the Seventh War loan. Next to making suggestim~s for selKng bonds I suppoee one of the best things one can do is b~ them. Of course if everybody fol- lowed that horse-sense plan and bought, simply for the security M their own future, the treasury wouldn't need any suggestions. NO. 8. Wushingt~, D. C. ]POULTRY BLACK MARKET. WASHINGTON. -- The black mar- ket in eggs and poultry is so bad that the War Food administration is seriously considering the frees- lng of all eggs in storage. Mean- while J. Edgar Hoover s G-men have been quietly probing the poultry black market in the Delaware-Mary- land area with startling results. Their findings will reach high into Delaware state politics and per- haps into the Washington headquar- ters of the War Food administrao tion and OPA. Already Clifford Shedd, Delaware WFA official, has lost the authority to release poultry for civilian con- i sumption from the army's set-aside, !but his chief in Washington, Gor- I don Sprague, says he is taking I full authority for anything that might be found wrong with Shedd's administration. Sprague has taken over direct charge of all poultry re- leases, but claims that he knows of no irregular action by Shedd. Meanwhile, black market 015- orations along both the West and the East coast are so seri- ous that legitimate poultry and egg dealers are being forced out of business. The situation in New England, New Jersey and North Carolina Is eepeclally bad. Tim Stitts of the War Food ad- ministration told Congressman Anderson's food committee that OPA should suspend all price ceil- ing on eggs in an effort to channel eggs back into the legitimate mar. ket. This immediately caused deal- ers to hold on to their eggs for a price rise. But what they did not know is that Stitts has not requested OPA to suspend or even raise the price ceiling on eggs. OPA. under the price control act. cannot raise these ceilings without formal re- quest from the War Food adminis- tration, and this request has never been made. Finally, the WFA may be forced to freeze all eggs in stor- age, permitting the army to take what it wants of them and release the rest for civilian market. Hundreds of thousands of eases of eggs are in privsAe storage this year while their owners piny for an eventtml price rise. The black market on those eggs which do not go into storage Is so bad that while creameries in Minnesota cannot get eggs, eggs from Minneset~ farms are going via illegal chan- nels as far as New York City. U. S. PRESTIGE ABROAD Hardbolled Republican Congress- man Everett Dirksen of Illinois had a secret meeting with his GOP con leagues in a ho'use lobby the other day following his 30.000-mile trip around the world. He gave them plenty of food for thought. Among other things, Dirksen said: "Here's something you fellows may not agree with, but I want to tell you that the OWl (Office of War Information) is doing a great Job for us abroad. "I went into Turkey where 83 per cent of the pictures in the Turkish newspapers and 40 per cent of the lineage is supplied them by the OWL In other words, they are telling the Turks what this country is I/ke-- selling the United States to Turkey. "They're doing a great job and if it wasn't for OWl, American pres- tige wouldn't be half as high as it is today. In India, for instance, I met with a group of political leaders who began seklng me about the Tennessee Valley Authority. ! was surprised that they would knew anything about it, and asked them how it happened; they replied ths| they had seen un OWl film shewing TVA. "I came to the conclusion," Dirk- sen said, "that OWl is something we've got to keep after the war." RUSSIAN RELATIONSlGP8 Unless something unforeseen hap- pens to upset it, Harry Hopkins has won a resounding victory for /m- proved relations with Russia by Ironing out the main points o~ the Polish dispute. The e~rreeme~ bammeeed ou~ in meral intimate talks be- twm Hepldne and 8tails. pro- vided forlm Immedinte meeting gtree 8t~upe e~ l'oitsh tend- e~J in Moscow te set up a new Pelish government ~ept~eeMfng all faeUene. Thk ~fll include oz. l~endee MAkda~myk ef tim Leo. don gevemment, whe has bne~ kept informed phaeen et the K, mtln dlsone- 8don8 ud kM spwoved them. |