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July 19, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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July 19, 1945
 

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VOL. XXVII. NO MORE SISTER SUSI~E'S SOCKS Civilian consumers will benefit m the postwar period for a number of wartime discoveries by army chem- ists and researchers. Not only will they have synthetic soups and sell- heating cocoa to use on camping trips, but they will find that they can purchase such things as shrink- proof woolen socks. The days when "the socks of sisters raised the blooming blisters" have been ban- ished forever in the army. All army socks are now shrink-proofed, and efforts are being made to apply the same treatment to all types of wool cloth. A new synthetic cloth has also been developed which can be rolled up into a ball and will rebound from a wall with the force of a rubber bail If allowed to remain on a level surface for a quartet of an hour, however, the material will' flatten out completely. The fiber wears extremely well but the dif- ficult still to be worked out is that; y . it will not stand more than 15 to; 20 launderings. C API;AI CHAFF 4I. In view of the lumber shortage and the terrific wartime destruc- tion of forests in the South and Northwest, a drive has started for a renewal of the Civilian Conserva-~ tion corps after the war. Ttds may be the answer to conscription. ~. While old-fashioned brass hats talk about a big land army after the war. General Bayerlein, command- er of the Panzer Lehr division, now a prisoner, has given some inter- esting information to U. S. officers abroad. He reports that if the U. S. army had stepped up tactical air warfare last August, after our breakthrough into France, we could have won the war sooner. At that time, U. S. planes were bombing German factories but not concen- trating heavily on tactical bombing --in other words bombing of enemy troops Wonder what the effect would be if the new goop bomb, which spreads unquenchable fire in every direction, were dropped wholesale on Jap troops in action? U. S. and France's Radio Top officials of OWI are seriously considering using the American taX- payers' money to buy time on Fran- ce's Spanish radio network. Up untiD recently, OWI was broad- casting o~/er the Rabat, North Afri- can, station, which is French, in order to reach the Spanish people. According to OWI executive Thor- man Barnard, "several programs a day carrying the American story are broadcast to the Spanish poe- ple." But despite the recent action of the San Francisco confqrence in fiat- ly vetoing the admission of Fascist Spain into the United Nations, OWl is considering a radio hookup over France's government-owned net- work. A debate has been raging inside the government over the price of coffee, which this time may be boosted. " ur Chief problem is that Brazil, o1 . biggest coffee shipper ana our vest friend in Latin America, is finding it So uneconomical to grow coffee ~at she is turning to cotton. In ttmt case she would be our chief compet- itor instead of our ch/ef customer. Labor costs in Brazil have risen to such an extent that Brazilian cof- fee growers can't produce at the OPA ceiling price which averages around 13 cents a pound. They want the price boosted to an average of ,18 cents a pound. This would in- crease the cost of a cup of coffee one-eighth of a cent. h The state department favors suc0 a price rise. The OPA, anxious hold the line, is opposed. 4 S MEBBY.GO-U0UND ~. Senator Carl Hatch of New Mex- ico has been sitting on the anti-poll tax bill until the San Francisco Unit- ed Nations charter is out of the way. He does not want a pelt-tax filibuster to upset ratification of the charter. Forthright Fred Vlnson, the war mobilis~r, is going to be put on the spot soon by the Surplus War Prop- ert~ board. It is about to hatch a ruling whereby 11 billion dollars of government-owned war plants and machinery would be sold mere. ly on the basis of price, not on the basis of where they could stimulate business and competition. If the Surplus board has its way, war plants, machinery, etc will go to the DuPonts, Geaeral Motors, Ford, and others with the most cash to buy them.~ MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTAThursday, July 19, 1945 NO. 7. 1 Concentration Camps Turned Men Into Brutes Prisoners Who Survived Cruelties Eventu- ally Adopted Ways of Their Sadistic Guardians. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and C,~mmentator. (Thls Is the second article on postwar Germany explaining how the Nazi "planned terror," methodically applied to the older Germans, has produced u state of mind among the anti-Nazis which vastly complicates American rule of Germany.) WNU Service, Union Trust Building Washington, D. C. In my preceding column I de- scribed the state of mind of the mid- dle-aged German who had been ~ anti-Nazi or at least had no con- nections with the Nazi party. A study of the gestapo methods has revealed that it was planned defi- nitely to destroy initiative and i~di- viduality.~ This has greatly com~pli- cated the work of the AmerLcan ad- as he was to processes logically con- trolled by law and order. To be de- priced suddenly of one's civil rights with no recourse, came as a severe blow to the prisoner's mentality. The transportation to the camp and the initiation into it frequently is the first experience of physical and psychological torture which the prisoner has ever experienced. Corporal punishment, says Bettel- heim, describing his own observa- UNIVERSAL TRAINING: Governors Hear Plans Pleas for support of a system ofi universal military training after the~ war were made to the 37th annuali governors' cortference at Mackinac island by Gen. George C. Marshall, army chief of staff, and Adm. Er-~ nest King, chief of the U. S. fleet. Meeting with the state executives to report on the progress of the war on Japan, the top leaders of the army and navy pictured universal military training as essential to the future safety of the United States. The two chieftains warned that if there should be another world war, it would come swiftly, without time or opportunity to tr@in a large army. Maintenance of a strong national guard with a large reserve main- tained through universal training would keep the United States pre- pared, they declared, without the no. cessity of a large standing army. ATLANTIC AIR: O. K'd for Three Lines Certificates authorizing the opera- tion of air transportation routes across the North Atlantic were is- sued to three United States air car- riers by the Civil Aeronautics board. The companies are Pan.American Airways, Inc:, Transcontinental and ministration of occupied Germany. As I said, the gestapo made use of a definite system of "planned terror." It will, I realize, be somewhat dif- ficult for a person living in a demo- cratic country to grasp the extent to which such methods could be ap- plied. First, we must realize that a totalitarian government is the abso- lute antithesis of a democracy. In a democracy the individual is the unit. The state exists for the individ- ual. Under Nazi-Fascist totalitarian- ism, it is not enough to say that the individual exists for the state. The ~individual as a concept does not exist ~at all "The Fascist conception of the state," said Mussolini, "is all- embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist. . " It was the first task of the Nazis to destroy this concept of indi- viduality, The terror was a part of the method employed. Purpose Was to Break Will to Resist Bruno Bettelheim, author of "My Life in Nazi Concentration Camps," testifies to the purpose of the camps and the achievement of this purpose by the gestapo from his own experi- ences. He says that among the aims were these: 1. To break the prisoners as indi- viduals and convert them into docile masses from which no individual or group act of resistance could arise. 2. To spread terror among the rest of the population by: a. Using the prisoners as hos- ts ges; b. Demonstrating to them what happened to those who oppose Nazi rulers. 3. To provide gestapo members with a training ground so they could: a. Lose all human attitudes and emotions; b. Learn the most effective ways of breaking civilian re sistance. 4. To provide a laboratory in which the gestapo could study the effectiveness of torture, minimum nourishment and medical care, and normal activities plus hard labor. The general purpose, of course, was to create a civilian population of maximum benefit to the Nazi state. The author's study of prisoners conducted under the camp regime, supplemented by a careful self- analysis, leads him to believe that the camp treatment resulted in either death or an adaptation to camp llfe. The prisoner finally ac- cepted his position and even came to imitate the gestapo in manner and conduct. This seems a logical progression when we know that the gestapo themselves in their training were . submitted to tortures almost equal to those inflic.ted On the prisoners. One of the gestapo games, the au- thor relates, was for two of them to stand up and beat each other. The one who stood.the lon~ won Old prisoners wno were m oughly ,changed" were said to in- dulge in the same sport among themselves. Many Were Killed, Or Were Suicides Bettelhelm describes the three stages through which the prison. ers passed. The first is the arrest; the second is transportation 'to the camp, which is the hi[rdest to bear, he says. The last is prison life; after a period of transition during which, unless the prisoner either re- sists physically and is murdered or resists introspectively and commits suicide, he is gradually "changed" until he reaches the "old prisoner" stage. Then his previous nature is eradicated, his individuality lost and his subjection complete. The initial shock was devastating especially to a German, accustomed tions, consisted of whipping, kick- Western Air, Inc and the American ing, slapping, intermingled with Air Lines, Inc. Terminal points des- shooting and wounding with the ignated by the board include New bayonet. Then there were tortures, York, Boston, Philadelphia, Wash- the obvious goal of which was ex- ington, Chicago and Detroit. treme exhaustion. "For instance," The certificates authorizing the he says, "the prisoners were forced I new services were limited to a term to stare for hours into glaring lights, ! of seven years "in order that the to kneel for hours, and so on. From operations thereunder, after a rea- time to time a prisoner got klll~d; sonable period, may he "reviewed." no prisoner was permitted to take The action of the Civil Aeronau- care of his or another's wounds. The tics board was approved by Presi. purpose of the tortures was to ,reak the resistance of the pris- oners, and to assure the guard that they were really superior to them." Many were killed in this process. But those who lived, according to the author, were conditioned to the point where what foUowed--more beatings, more indignities, little food, exposure and brutally hard work--was not as bad as the initial experience. For the rest, it was a slow but sure process of degeneration of body, mind and soul. One thing which has surprised the Americans in occupied Germany ls the tendency of the German people to deny that they knew the extent of the atrocities which were perpe- ;rated in the camps or to appear to ignore their existence. This is a result of a planned ef- fect of the camp. Dread Fear Hunf Over Everyone According to statements concern- ing conditions in Germany as early as 1930, most of the Germans who had committed actual offenses against the Nazi regime, had al- ready been imprisoned, murdered or had died in the camps. Then the Nazis found it necessary to go out and arrest members of various groups indiscriminately, say a few lawyers, a few doctors, a few from one organization or another. This was done as a threat against that whole particular group. The effect on a group was some- what the same, though in a lesser degree, as the effect on a family. The effect on the families of the prisoners, of course, was marked. At first a great deal of money was spent in attempting to get the pris- oner released. The gestapo a~way$ replied that it was the prisoner's own fault that he was imprisoned, Then members of the family began to fiud it bard to get Jobs, children had trouble at school; poor relief was denied. Always the terror hung over them. The friends and relatives of a prisoner were considered sue. pects. So the influence of the camp reached out over the whole" group. As the Nazi regime became more harsh and especially latterly, when world resentment increased against it even before the war, many more Germans, passive before, became openly dissatisfied and criticaL It was impossible to imprison them all without interfering with the func- tioning of the country's economy. Then "group" arrests increased. People in lots of a hundred or so from one profession, or trade,~or ~- fillated body, would be ~alled. Thus the effect of the ,terror'~ wss multi- plied. This was the manner in which the entire population of the country was enchained. General McChire recognizes how crushing has been the effect Of "planned terror," but I doubt if the general public has any realization of its magnitude. "We shall often have to go far out of our way," says the general, 'to help certain in- dividuals who have not had an e.aky life these last I2 years and more, hen whose broken spirits may well need our support and guidance to return to the ways of active per. sonal democratic initistive." It took centuries to develop human dignity, but it took only a few months in a Nazi concentration camp to destroy it. dent Truman. BERLIN: G.l.s Take Over Area As Maj. Gen. Nikolai N. Barinov, soviet commander in Berlin, formal- ly turned the American occupation zone in the German capital over to i Gen. Omar N. Bradley, the Amer- ican flag was raised over the Adolf Hitler barracks. A 4,000 vehicle convoy brought the American forces from Halle to the Zehiendorf area of war battered Berlin which will comprise the U. S. zone of occupation. American vet- erans of World War H entered the former Nazi stronghold as conquer- rors, returning the smart salutes of Red army traffic police. For the duration of the occupation of the Reich by Allied armles, Bero fin was to be jointly in the hands of the Russians, the Americans and the British. The British generally will control the northwest area of the city, including the localities of Cl~ar. 1ottenburg and Wilmersdorf. WAR PRODUCTION: 96,359 Planes A forecast of the enormous Amer- ican industrial capacity for postwar years was given by J. A. Krug, War Production board chairman, in Jt re- view of production results by war plants since the summer of 1943. The United States produced 45 per cent of the world's munitions in 1944, Mr. Krug's report disclosed. "In 1944, the country produced 96,- 359 airplanes, including 16,048 heavy bombers, built 30,889 ships. 17,565 tanks, 595,330 army trucks, and pro- duced 3,284 heavy field guns and howitzers and '/,454 light ones, 152,- 000 army aircraft rocket launchers, 215,177 bazookas and 1,146,774 tons of ground artillery ammunition." the report declared. STARVATION STATION: Discovered in Bavaria The grisly discovery of a Nazi "scientific starvation" station which was claiming children and adult victims until recently was re- ported by two public health officials of the American Military govern- ment in Bavaria. The arrest of 4 German doctors and 3 hospital attendants at the sta- tion in the Kadfoeuren area, 45 miles southeast of Munich, preceded the announcement. One woman con- fessed killing 211 children for which she drew extra compensation, the announcement said. LEGION: Backs U. N. Charter Full support of the 1,600,000 mem- bers of the American Legion, includ- ing veterans of both World wars was pledged to the Uuited Nations char- when National Commander Ed- ward Schi~berllng urged the senate to ratify the pact. Schieberling set forth his views in a letter to all members of the sen- ate. "The American Legion feels that the San Francisco charter is an honest and able attempt to create a workable association of free and sovereign nations," the letter de- clared, "hnplemented with force to maintain peace and prevent recur- rence of war. It is obvious that it is the best and only charter that can be produced at this time." , W||KLY N|WS ANALYSIS Japan Begins to Feel Full Weight O[ Allied Air, Sea, Land Blows; Europe W?rneJ oLFoOOdooShortage (EDITOR'8 NOTE: When opinions are expressed in these columns, they are these of: Western Newspaper Union's news analysts and not neeessarJir of this newspaper.) Juicy sides of beef, whole hogs, veal and lamb hang in the aging room of a quick freeze and food locker plant in Towson, Md nean Baltimore, while OPA investigators question locker holders about theiri meat supplies. The OPA reported that it was not satisfied with the ex~. planations of holdings given by hal/ of the group questioned to date. JAPAN : Target for Onslaught Japan's dwindling empire was given a thorough going over with bombs, warship strikes and offen- sives by American and Australian land forces. In an attack that carried Amer- ican naval power almost within sight of Russian Siberia, a U. S. battle fleet maoe a surprise bombardment of the Japanese-held southern hall of Sakhalin island in the Sea of Okhotsk. The Tokyo radio reported that American surface units had broken through the Kurile barrier and steamed more than 500 miles westward to attack Sakhalin. Tokyo likewise reported an American bat- tle fleet threatening the northern coast of Japan. Meanwhile the relentless air of- fensive snuffing out Japanese war production cities continued,unabat- ed. Climaxed by an hour-long radio challenge of American fighter planes circling three Tokyo airfields for the Japanese air force to come up for battle, approximately 800 planes set off the latest fires and explosions in Japan. Fires in four Japanese cities burned so brightly they could be seen simultaneously by returning B-29 pilots. Everything from power houses to light houses was strafed. Six Tokyo air fields were riddled with bombs. Two Japanese destroy- ers were hit in the Yellow Sea. Borneo Oil On Borneo the coveted oil fields held by the Japs since early 1942 came closer into Allied hands. De- struction of well facilities by the Japa had been widespread, but en- gineers were prepared to work on repairs. Australian and American forces were co-operating in the lib- eration of this former Dutch hold- ing." With Australian infantrymen battering at the last Jap footholds in Balikpapan, this major oil port was in Allied hands. Across the bay from the city, artillery had shelled strongly placed enemy guns. Mean- while engineers had rushed recon- struction Of the captured Sepingang air strip. RUSS AID: For China Foreseen To Japan the dread question of possible .Russian participation in the Pacific war was heightened by the cordial reception Chinese Premier T. V. Soong received in Moscow on h~ official visit to the Soviet Union. Foreign diplomats in the Red cap- ital reported that the Japanese mis. sion there were highly nervous over the friendly relations evident be- tween the Chinese and Russians. The $ape were the only diplomats who did not attend a sumptuous re- ception that Vacheslav Molotov, so- viet foreign commissar, gave for Premier Soong. Whether the Russ-Chinese meet- lngs presaged future action by the soviets against Japan continued to be a moot question, but reports were current that Soong might at least negotiate a mutual aid pact where- by Russia would undertake to sup- ply Chinese armies without lending them direct military aid. In return it was assumed that China would make certain concessions to Russia --possibly granting a warm water naval base in the Llaotung penin- sula of Manchuria and certain rail. way transportation rights through Manchuria. CABINET CHANGES: Morgenthau No. 6 The resignation of Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau marked the sixth member of Presi- dent Truman's official family who has severed his ties with the cabi- net. The five who preceded him were Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, Postmaster General Frank Walker, Secretary of Agriculture Claude Wicard. Attorney-General Francis Biddle and Secretary of State Edward Stettinius. Successors to all five have assumed their of- rices. Secretary Morgenthau's resigna- tion was accompanied almost simultaneously by the resignation of Associate Justice Owen D. Roberts from the Supreme court. This was the first resignation from the high tribunal in President Truman's term, but unlike those of the cabi- net, it was not expected to set a precedent for others. Justice Roberts, appointed by Pres- ident Hoover had served 15 years on the Supreme court. One of his moat notable public services was performed as head of the commit- tee that investigated the Pearl Har- bor disaster. PHILIPPINES : Springboard/or Tokyo In one of the proudest m0menta of his thrill-studded career, Gen. Douglas MacArthur proclaimed that the Philippine Islands had been won back "in the greatest disaster ever sustained by Japanese arms." The doughty American command- er announced that the islands' 115,- 600 square miles are being trans- formed into bases "comparable to the British Islands" to pace the march on Tokyo. The saga of the Philippines tri- umph disclosed that in 250 days of campaignIng, 17 American divisions defeated 23 Jap divisions in "one of the rare instances when . . . a ground force superior in numbers was entirely destroyed by a numer- ically inferior opponent." It was estimated that 420,000 Jap- anese were slaughtered, including such hated outfits as the 16th Im- perial division which had tor.~ed American and Filipino prisoners in the "Death March" of 1942 follow ing the fall of Bataan. F )OD: Europe Must Speed Output A blunt warning to the liberated nations of Western Europe to speed up their own food production be. cause relief shipments from abroad may fall short of expectation has beendelivered, according to Dennis A. Fitzgerald, United States deputy on the combined food board. Officials of the nations involved have been told that "they'd better start pulling themselves up by their own bootstraps and use every conceivable device to increase their production," Fitzgerald disclosed. Liberated countries have been as-. sured that vigorous efforts are be, in& made to give them all assist. ance POssible, he said, but they have also been reminded that the United States "still has a fuU-sized war in the Pacific" which will g~et first call on our own food stocks. By far the largest share of re~- llef shipments ,to Europe will be composed of wheat and flour, Fitz- gerald reported. Approximately 650,000 bushels of wheat a~e ex- [meted to go out from the U, S. aad Canada.