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August 9, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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August 9, 1945
 

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[] ] , VOL. XXVII. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, August 9, 1945 m WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS PRICE CONTROL: Internal Reform Faces Britain, To Stick Despite the impending relaxation of price control over minor items, But Diplomacy to Remain Same; regulation wiU be maintained o yer principal products and services Allise G!ve Japso Peace r erms to avert postwar inflation, OPAd- ministrator Chester Bowles de- b w ~ ~R eas y p ve " elared. EDITOR'S NOTE: When opinions are expressed in these columns, they are those of Western Newspaper Union's news analysts and not necessarily of Khls newspaper.) In loosening up on price control on minor items, OPA will take action when the commodity or service is not essential; continued regulation i involves difficulties out of proper- it ion to the importance of the prod- uct, and no materials, facilities or manpower will be diverted from more necessary industries. Because various manufacturers will be in the market for vast quan- tities of raw materials to fill orders, and civilian demand for essential goods, food and many services will far exceed supply, maintenance of price control in the immediate post- w~r period will be required for curb- ing runaway prices, Bowles said. With the war in the Pacific in the decisive stage, map shows disposi- tion of Japanese forces throughout Asiatic theater. GREAT BRITAIN: Future Outlook Though profoundly affecting Great Britain's internal economy, the sweeping victory of the Laborites in the first general election since 1935 is not expected to appreciably alter the country's foreign policy based on maintenance of the empire to as- sure comparatively high living standards. Notwithstanding the fact that the Laborite triumph represented the ascendancy of leftism in the United Kingdom, the fact remains that the country is so dependent upon the empire for raw materials and mar- kets to support its industrial struc- Laborites Attlee, Morrlson, Bevln. ture that retention of ties abroad, strength on the seas and control over vital bases undoubtedly will remain the substance of its foreign policy. With Laborites ruling, concessions may be made to Leftist elements in Europe and elsewhere, but in over- all policy, Great Britain's historic diplomacy will remain essentially British. At home, however, tradition-bound old Britain may be in for a radical remodeling, with the Laborites' plat- form for nationalization of industry tempered by the amount of private management that will be tolerated. Under Prime Minister Clement Aft- lee, former Minister of Labor Ernest Bevin and ex-Minister of Home Se- curity Herbert Morrison, goals of the Laborites include: Consolidation of all railroads, commercial carriers on highways and coastal shipping into one trans- portation unit under government control; nationalization and mech- anization of all coal mines and ira- provement of working conditions by increasing production; socialization of the iron and steel industry end the Bank of England. SECURITY CHARTER: Fight Ahead With only a scorching address by Senator Wheeler (Dem Mont.) marring the even temper of the de- bate, the United Nations security charter headed for quick senate ratification, with indications that the big battle lies ahead when the upper chamber will consider the power of the U. S, delegate and the contribu- tion of armed forces. Declaring that like President Wil- son the late Mr. Roosevelt had Jeop- ardized the prospects for successful postwar collaboration by conces- sions to the major European pow- ers. Wheeler himself foreshadowed an impending fight over details of U. S. participation. Though ~e would vote for ratification, he said, he would do so only on the strength of statements that the senate would later work out operational arrange- D~ents. Prior to Wheeler's speech, Sena- tors Connally (Dem Texas) and Vandenberg (Rep Mich.) advoeat- ed ratification, stressing that the se- curlty pact in no way affected U. S. sovereignty but did provide the country with an opportunity to exerc~e its self-determination for effective international co-operation to prevent future warfare. PACIFIC : Allied Terms Trembling under the bombard- ment of Allied air and naval force~, Japan was threatened with even greater catastrophe by U. S British and Chinese chieftains unless the na- tion gave up the hopeless fight and set about the establishment of a peaceful and democratic rule. The Allied answer to rampant peace "talk, the U. S British and Chinese declaration issued in Pots- dam where the Big Three met, called upon the enemy to rout its militaristic leadership, relinquish control of conquered territory, and submit to occupation for fulfillment of terms. In Ireturn, political and religious thought would be respect- ed, and Japan eventually permitted to resume its place in foreign trade. Though issued from Potsdam, Russia conspicuously refrained from joining in the declaration, lending credence to reports that the Soviets had acted as middlemen in a Jap peace overture, expressing willing. hess to comply with major Allied terms, but asking for exemption from occupation of the home islands. Even as the Allies called upon Japan for uncondition~l surrender, Admfrai "Ball" Halsey's mixed U. S. and British alrcrs/t carrier force continued its heavy attacks on Nippon, with one great 1,200.plane strike further battering the enemy's &lre~$Y strleken navy. Sweeping in against mlno~ Opl~o- sition, Halsey's Hellcats ripped up 20 Japanese warships in the Inland sea, with three battleships, six air- craft carriers and five cruisers dam- aged. As a result of the attack. the enemy reportedly has few war- ships in commission, with most of these being cruisers and destroyers. In addition to hammering the Jap. aneee fleet units, ,Allied carrier pi- lots continued to whittle down en- emy air strength, and also further disrupted coastal shipping linking the home islands by firing cargo vessels and small barges. FRANCE: Petain Accused As the dramatic trial of Marshal Henri Petain moved smoothly tel- lowing a stormy outburst on the opening day over a barb by Pros- ecutor Andre Mornet that there were too many German-minded spectators present, none of the pfln- cipal witnesses against the old sol- dier openly accused him of betray- ing his country. They charged he failed in his duties as a Frenchman. Nevertheless, former Premier Paul Reynaud and Ednard Dala- dier and ex-President Albert Lebrun rapped Petain unn~ercifully for ne- gotiating an armistice with the Ger- mans while an effort was made to keep up the fight; assuming supreme power and virtually ruling by de- cree, and acceding to Nazi requests for manpower and material In testifying for the state. Dala- dler declared that' France was "not as weak materially at the time of her defeat as generally suspected, but fell because of errors in con- ception on the part of the general staff. Declaring the Germans were amazed to find huge quantities of equipment on hand, he said France possessed 3,600 tanks at the time of the invasion of Holland and Bel- gium to the enemy's 3,200. WAR CONTRACTS: Keep Cutting With war production down 9 per cent from the peak level of March, the impact on the economy will grow as more reductions are made on actual work rather than on paper commitments. By the end of the year, munitions output is expected to drop 32 per cent below the March Reflecting cutbacks, aircraft pro- duction was down l0 per cent in June under May; ships, including maintenance and repair, down 5 per cent; guns and fire control, down 13 per cent; ammunition and bombs, ! down 16 per cent; combat and motor vehicles, down 8 per cent; commu-~t nications and electronic equipment, down 5 per cent, and other material and supplies up 1 per cent. Unusual photo shows Matador Ceni. tas tossed in~ air o~ ot buffs head dur. ing fight in Madrid ring. But d~y hurt, the dashing Ctni~s resumed the duel to ultimately thrust his sword through animals heart and win the mawh. UNITED NATIONS: Relief Requests Having already distributed U96,- 563,000 worth of relief to Greece, Italy, Poland, Czecboslovakla, Yugu-, slavla, China and Albania, the Unit. ed Nations Relief and Rehabilitatiou administration (UNRRA) has been asked for $700,000,000 of asslstance by Russia. At the same. time, I~ UNRRAdministrator Roy F. Hen. drickson revealed that trucks cou- stituted the No. I priority for relief i shipments to facilitate the move- meat of European crops. / . Under UNRRA regulations, un~- ended nations are supposed ~0 con. tribute both toward the relief and administrative expenses of the proJ. ect, with the invaded countries chip- ping in only for running the organl. zatiun, Of the $I,862,788,348 of au- thorized contributions of participat. ing nations, it was revealed, the U, S. share amotmts to $1,~0,000 000. SUEZ TOLLS: U. S. Balks With U.S. troops pouring through the Suez canal en route to the Pao cific, and with toll payments already mounting to over $11.000,000, the government again pressed the Brit. ish to absorb such charges under reverse lend-lease. In pressing the British, American authorities pointed out that the U. S. defraays the cost of British ships passing through the Panama canal with such payments already past the $9,000,000 mark. Because the lend-lease act pro- vides that a country ean supply aid from purchases with its own money, the British say they are not obliged to pay the canal toils, since they must be made in Egyptian currency. As it is, the British declare, they already owe Egypt large sums for wartime purchases. Domestic Problems to Test Truma n' s Mettle Harmonious Relations on Foreign Policy Soon to Give Way to Contention Over Difficulties of Reconversion. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, Union Trust Building, Washington, D. C. The political armistice in Wash- ington will end shortly after the President's return from Berlin. The Big Three meeting followed so close- ly on the heels of the San Fran- cisco conference that foreign affairs have dominated the scene almost to the exclusion of domestic matters, which sooner or later must test the mettle of the new administration. Another reason, perhaps, why President Truman's honeymoon has been extended is the fact that the main issue before the country, the United Nations charter, has been robbed of its partisan flavor. This is largely due to the long and ardu- ous efforts of former Secretary of State Hull. He built up a working understanding on foreign affairs be- tween the administration" and the congress, which resulted in the only a former senator, but a former Supreme court justice. Byrnes pro- vides an understanding link with the judicial branch as well as with the legislative. The secretary of the treasury, Fred Vinson, is a former member of congress as well as an ex-judge. Secretary of Agriculture Anderson is not only a former member of congress, but was head of the house food committee, which directed some of the most serious criticism against the former admin- istration's handling of the food situ- ation. This committee is now work- ing closely with the new cabinet member. Wh~le Secretary of Commerce Wallhee does not bring to his de- partment the close associations of the men over whom he presided as president of the senate, the scope and function of his office has been considerably reduced by the reor- Vice President Truman shortly before his elevation to the presidency discusses politics and artillery shells with Baukhage. whole-hearted co-operation of most of the leaders of both parties, stur- dily supported by public opinion. Secretary Hull was able.to achieve this harmony because of the confi- dence in which his former colleagues held him and also because of his ex- perience as a member of the legisla. tire branch of the government. Roosevelt could never-have been as successful in this endeavor and, be- cause he realized that fully, he left the matter largely in Hull's hands. Chic? Still One o? the Boys In the first place, President Tru- man stepped directly from the up- per house to the vice presidency, and aver since he left the legis. lative brancb for the executive, be has been acting as liaison between the two. . Shortly before President Roose- velt's death I had occasion to in- terview the then vice president. I ~t~lk~ about the forthcoming San FranCisco =~:on~rence with him (as well as the field artillery, of which we are both alumni). He indieated that'he was bolding aloof from any public participation in the discus- sion~ of international affairs but was attempting .to carry on and to com- plement the work of Secretary Hull in promoting a sympathetic discus- sion of the Dumbarton Oaks agree- ment with members of the senate foreign relations committee, the house committee on foreign affairs and others. One of his first unorthodox acts was to take lunch with some of his old colleagues at the Capitol. This was almost as if the king of England were to attempt to enter the City of London without first having a formal parley with the lord mayor. But it was a perfectly natural act on Tru- man's part--like his spontaneous re- mark to the effect that there was a certain Chinese restaurant where he would like to eat while he was on the West coast. On second thought he realized that. as President, he couldn't do such a thing and admit- ted it with a smile. TheP~esident's informal visits to the Capitol haven't hurt him. Nor his formal ones. After his last ap- pearance, when he delivered the charter, he lingered so long in the senste chamber, shaking hands and patting backs, that an aide had to hint gently that he wasn't a Senator any more and must hurry back to his work. His cabinet appointments are highly significant. ~?ruman's secre- tary of state, James Byrnes, is not ganization of the department and so is not a source of friction. In his secretary of labor, President Tru- man has a man who was exceed. ingly popular In the senate--anoth- er judge---Lewis Schwellenbach. Fear InRushes Party Boues Of course, when it comes to clues- glens like the poll-tax and the fair employment practices tact or any other measure in which the race question is involved, the old frietion arises with the southern congress- men and ~ny Repuhileans they can attract to their cause. Also, white there are those who say that the President is steering a course much farther to the right than President Roosevelt did, he nevertheless is committed to a number of the so- called New Deal "reforms," both be- csuse of his record in the senate and because of his natural leanings. However, since Truman is known to be a strong party man, it will be easier for him to keep the southern Democrats in line. Of course, some of the radical New Dealers are doing a lot of eye- brow raising behind the bushes and a remark (perhaps written with tongue in cheek) whieb appeared in the Wall Street Journal sent ally. era dow~ some spines. That news- paper, which hardly depends on Democratic support for its clreula. tion, said recently: "Not since the short-lived administration of Warren Harding has there been the prospect of teamwork as exists today." If the results of the Berlin meet- ing are such that they reveal a marked improvement in Big Three relations and a harmonious settle- meat of some of the diffieult inter. national problems, the President's prestige will be greatly increased. However, by that time domestic dis- content will be crystallizing, the honeymoon will be on the wane and the President will need all the "teamwork" he can muster. If the Japanese war should, by any chance, end suddenly--before another year--it would mean that reconversion, threats of inflation and unemployment and s hundred other problems will be upon us and Presl. dent Truman will be stripped of his protective authority as Commander. in-Chief. Then the slings and ar- rows which even Roosevelt's ene- mies were wont to deflect to con. gress and other government agen. cies will be aimed squarely at the man in the White House. Peace will not be too peaceful at 3200 Penn. sylvania avenue. NO. 10. HITLER IN PATAGONIA It may take a long time to find out whether Hitler and his bride Eva Braun escaped to Patagonia. The country is a series of vast Nazi- owned r~tnches' where German is spoken almost exclusively and where Hitler could be hidden easily and successfully for years. The ranches in this southern part of Argentina cover thousands of acres and have been unfler Nazi management for generatioffs. Be- cause of absolute German Control, it would be impossible for any non- German to penetrate the area to make a thorough investigation as to Hitler's whereabouts. Along the coast of Patagonia, many Germans own land which con- tains harbors deep enough for sub- marine landings. And if submarines could get to Argentine-Uruguayan waters from Germany, as they def- initely did, there is no reason why they could not go a little farther south to Patagonia. Aiso there Is no reason why Hitler couldn't have been on one of them. Note--On Decembe~ 15, 1943, this column reported that "Hitler's gang has been working to build up a place of exile in Argentina in case of de- feat. After the fall of Stalingrad and then Tunisia, they began to see defeat staring them in the face, That was their cue to move in on Argen- tina." The same column also cited chapter and verse regarding Ger- man-trained officials who ruled the new Argentine dictatorship. At San Francisco, Nelson Rockefeller and Jimmy Dunn insisted that the U. S. A. recognize Argentina. Note 2---If it ever comes to iden- tifying Hitler, Dr. Robert Kempner, former German police official now living in Lansdowne, Pa has the answers. Kempner, who was in charge of the investigation after Hit- ler's beer hall putsch, says that Hit- ler's right thumb is abnormally long, his right ear pointed on top and his mouth is very receding. Kempner has turned over his data to U. S. authorities. MYSTERIOUS PEACE FEELERS It's being kept very hush-hush, but something important is brewing behind the scenes regarding peace with Japan. Highest officials won't say a word about it, not even to some of the~ cabinet colleagues. However, peace ~feelers which have come from the Japs ha~e been much more than feelers--despite Secretary Grew's denials. One of them was debated by the comblfl~d chiefs of staff for more than a week. It proposed that the Japs withdraw from Korea and Manchuria and all China ff ~I) they could keep the em- peror, and (~4 they would not be invaded. Meanwhile, Joe Grew and the army and navy have prepared a di- rective outlining the minimum terms we would accept from the $aps. This Is one of the most high- ly gtmrded documents in the gov- ernment. However, it can be ~rtat- ed on high authority that the Grew peace plan would permit the Saps to retain Emperor Hlrohito. It can also be ststed that there Is considerable difference of opinion insMe the s4mlnistrs- tion regurdh~ the Grew memo- randum, trod some of his eol- lea&,uee lmdde the state depart- ment, including Assistant Seere- t@ry Will Clayton and Assistant 8ecre~ry Dean Acheson, are vigoromfly opposed. The whole situation is in a state of flux, and anything can happen overnight. INSIDE SAPAN Jap workers are now being drilled for home defense at noon hours. some even using pointed sticks as spears. The Japanese railroads are being torn to pieces by B-29s. Rail Junc- tions are clogged for days before traffie can clear through them. ~. $ap prisoners taken in Burma, Indo-China and the Dutch East la- dles haven't the ghost of an idea aa to what is happening in Japan. They can't believe that U. S. forces are steaming close to the Jap mainland. still believe the Jap navy will reopen supply lines to the South Pacific. 41. There is considerable debate in- side the U, S. high command re- garding the necessity for landing in China. Some think a Chinese in- vasion is neeessary to protect our in- vasion flank when we land in the main Jap islands. Others believe a Chinese invasionwonld onlyuse tight shipping and result in unnecessary casualties. The easiest way to aid China, they argue, is to defeat Japan quickly, not get bogged down with a long fight on the ChLuese matn~ land,