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August 23, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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August 23, 1945
 

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/ / I VOL. XXVIL MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, August 23, 1945 NO. 12. ,WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS , Atomic-Bomb ,anJ Russ AttackI Signal Japans Acceptance ofl Unconditional Surrender Terms ' " nlon I Following in lightning succession, the U. S. use of atomic "bombs and Russia's entrance into the conflict signalled the finis to the Pacific war, which had been waged with such bit- terness since December,af 1941. With the second of its great industrial cities leveled by the terrific new explosive, and with Russian troops driving deep into Manchuria and Korea, the Japanese gave the first indication of their decision to throw in the sponge early on August 10 with the Tokyo radio's announcement of accept- ance of unconditional surrender terms provided the emper- or's position was respected. Later, the Swedish foreign office revealed that the Japs had asked it to transmit their request for cessation of hos- tilities to the Allied powers. Under terms of the unconditional surrender drawn by the U. S Brit- ain and China at Potsdam, and later subscribed to by Russia, the Japs were required to: I. Elimlnate the Inflnencea of those who have directed Jap eonqncst; 2. Submit to occupation of deeignsted points in the home islands until world peace is as- sured; 3. Limit Jap sovereignty to the main is/ands of Honshu, HakJ~ida, Kyushu and 8hikoku; 4. Give up all foreign con- quests; 5. Disarm all forces; 6. Remove U obsteeles to freedom el speech, religion and thought. In return, the Potsdam terms promised Japan retention of all in- dustries to maintain the civilian conomy and provid for repara- tions in goods; access to raw mate- rials and free trade, and withdraw- al of occupation forces upon organ- ization of peae'e~mhJded govern- ment in conformance with the wishes of the people. In first indicating the Jap decision to give up the fight, the Tokyo radio declared that the Nipponese had ap- proached Russia to act as inter- mediary in pe ce negoti tions with the 11. S Brit 'm and C~n several weeks ago at the request of the em- peror. Having failed to establish contacts, however, the government Having first announced the U. S. use of the deadly atemio bomb, President Truman warned of fie con- tinaed employment matil the enemy quK. finally determined to accept the un- conditional surrender outlined at Potsdam, With the reservation that the emperor's position in the nation be respected. While neither the U. S. nor Brit- ain had ever officially discussed Hirohito's status in the event of a Jap collapse, it was felt that be- cause of his standing in the Nip- ponese community as a supposed de- scendent from the sun goddess, he would be able to preserve order in the home islands following defeat. It was argued that his forcible re- moval might well throw Japan's whole social order into confusion and chaos. Though the war in the Pacific had been a long and bitter one, with American forces pushing s~dJly ahead ever since the Japanese tidal wave was checked in the battles of the Coral Sea and Midway in the spring of 1942, the terrific ex- plosive effect of the atomic bomb and Russia's subsequent en- trance into the conflict was seen to quicken its end. Even though admitting that "it is an awful responsibility which has come to us," President H rry S. Truman declared th t the U. S. would continue to use the tomic bomb to destroy Jap munitions in- dustries and reduce the enemy's bility to wage war until cessation of hostilities. A milestone in the scientific age, the earth-shaking potency of the atomic bomb tempered the Jubila- tion at first expressed over its use in hastening the end of the Pacific war. First objective of the new atomic bomb, the rail and industrial cen- ter of Hiroshima on Honshu island lay in ruins, with buildings splin- tered and an estimated 100,000 per- sons killed. Only a few concrete structures remained standing in the heart of the city, with even the in- Pioneer in atom spurting, Dr. Er- nest Orlando Lawrence of the Unl. versity of Caiffarnla stands beside eyclolroa ha dew.pad.for experl- mea~J~ns. terior of these burned out by the fires following the explosion. So ter- rific was the blast, it rocked the B-20, from which the charge was dropped, while it cruised 10 miles distant. Goal of scientists for over 40 years, and the result of combined U, S. and British research since 1940, the tonic bomb has been secretly produced in two great plants at Rich]and, Wash and Oak Ridge. Tenn with two billion dollars re- qulred for its develol~ment. With. M J. Gen. Leslie R: Groves in over-all charge, and with Dr. J. R. Opperbheimer of the University of California heading the technical work, manufacture of the atomic bomb involved the use of uranium, metallic substance found in south- we tern Colorado and eastern Utah as well as in Canada, the Belgian Congo, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Norway and CoruwalL Principle of the new explosive lles in splitting atoms -- the tiniest particles of matter -- and releasing the electrical charges they contain with the attendant energy. Besides energY, heat and light can be re- covered, thus leading to wide post- war possibilities for the material. In announcing the use of the atomic bomb with its magical sub- stance, however, Secretary of War Stimson revealed that postwar adaptation of the product to civilian use will require additional expert- ment tion to design machinery capable of harnessing the tre- mendous force. Meanwhile, Stimson said, the U. S. intends to share the secret of the atomic bomb only with Britain and Canada, and in speculating on its use as a factor in maintaining peace, it was suggested that the English-speaking Allies would hold on to the explosive and restrict its use on behalf of the United Nations postwar secunity force to American stnd British planes. Regretting that the atomic bomb's inventors did not destroy the weap- on, the Vatican newspaper L'Osser- vatore Romano declared that it "made a deep impression (here), not so much for the use already made of the death instrument, as for the sinister shadow that the discov- ery casts on the future of human- ity." Because people never can learn the lessons of history, the publication said, the atomic bomb will also remain a temptation for un- scrupulous statesmen. EUROPE : New Developments With America now committed to keeping the peace in Europe, politi- eal developments on the stricken ~ontinent commanded the nation's attention more closely. Foremost recent developments in-. eluded the U. S. and Britain"s de-. vision to grant occupied Germany a larger measure of local indepsud~ ence; the Allies' move to separate, Austria from the Reich. and plaus for the determination of a new gov- ernment in Yugoslavia. Declaring that it ~,was up to ~e Germans themselves to ~re U, htblish their country in the eye8 of the world, General Eisenhower an- nounced that local trade unions and political parties would be permitted go into the fields to harvest a good crop. In determining to separate Aus- tria from the Reich, the Allies planned for the creation of an inde- pendent state in free and open elec- tions, before which the country would be divided into four occu- pational zones under U. S British, Russian and French military com- manders. The U. S. zone constitutes the north-central portion of Austria below the Danube. Meanwhile, Yugoslavia prepared to hold a vote on the question of the form of a new government, with Moscow - backed Marshal Tire call- ing for a republican system exclud- ing the monarchy. Charged with having been identified with Nazi col- laborators by Tito, 21-year-old King Peter retorted that the country was now under a wave of terror by the Partisans, with all law suspended and no opportunity for a free and open vote on the future character of the government. l Nation's Losses Within day America lost an out- standing soldier and an equally notable statesman. No. I U. S. ace of World War II, M J. Richard Ira (Dick) Bong from Poplar, Wis died when his Jet-pro-, polled "'Shooting Star" blew up short- ly after a takeoff~ at Burbank, Calif. Ent~ering the alr force in 1941, the then 20 - year - old former farm boy topped all other U. S. airmen by shooting down 40 MaJ. Bong Jap planes in action extending from Australia to the Philippines. Just before the "Shoot- ins Star" exploded, Bong was seen leaping out of the cockpit, oely to be caught in the air by the terrific blaat. One of the famed "~cfli- ables" who fought to keep the U. S. out of the Le gue of N tions, and also opposed r tifica- tion of the United Nations charter, Sen. Hiram W. John. son (Rep Calif.) 'died t the naval hospital at Bethel- da, Md t 79. AI. ways rugged in. dependent, who Sen. Johnson tread according to his conscience rath- er than party interests, Johnson took most pride in his governorship of California from 1910 to 1916, when he led in the adoption of woman auffrage, workmen's compensation and elimination of partisanship in municipal and county elections. CIVILIAN GOODS: Slow Coming Though War Production board of. flcials declared that the reconver- sion program gradually was gather- ing momentum, there are small prospects that needed civilian goods will reach retailers' counters in sufficient volume before well into 1946. In reviewing the situation, WPB held out hopes for substantial pro- duction of electric irons, baby car- riages and alarm clocks during the present quarter, with limited outpul of washing machines, vacuum cleaners and galvanized cans and pails. To date, only near sufficient quantities of razors, razor blades, nearing-aid batteries and dry cell batteries are being manufactured, it was said. Though comparatively large mounts of electric ranges, refriger. ators, film, lamps and fans are scheduled to be turned out in the present quarter, most will be re- served for military purposes, WPB revealed. Country Warn to Guard Against D,sturbances Insecurity in Reconversion Period May Be Cause for Smouldering Resentment; Minor Incident May Start Trouble. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst sad Cam~mtor. WNU Service, Union Trust Bailding, The fifth is the poli~:e attitude. If Washington. D. C. mobilization. I was surprised to learn how pre- dictable these clashes are, from the following statement by Alfred Mc- Clung Lee in a pamphlet produced by non-profit agency, the Ameri- can Council of American Race Re- lations. It was this: ' "The federal office of facts and figures (later called the ofce of War Information) had a confidential re- port 15 months before the 1943 De- troit race riot that included this sentence: 'Unless some socially con- structive steps are taken shortly, the tension that is developing is very likely to burst into active conflict.' " The day after the rioting began, the Detroit Free Press stated: '~rwo months ago everybody in De- troit familiar with the situation knew that race riots were inevitable." It is worth noting that the profes- I atonal observers were much farther ahead than the newspaper -- and newspaper reporters are pretty highly trained investigators them- selves. And they did know what was coming well tn advance. I But the fact remained that nobody did anything about it. And that is where you and I step into the picture. Now nobody but very small class of professional inciters of riot want race riots anymore than any- one but a very small class of profes- sional criminals are in favor of crime. But most people do not realize that these clashes can be avoided and very few indeed realize that they are symptoms and not the diseaim itself. The basic cause of the group ten- sions which burst into savage flame, destroy property, interfere with business and nearly always cost lives, is insecurity, Just as insecurity is one of the basic causes of wars. A man with Job and firm pros- poet of keeping it who Lives in healthy and decent surroundings does not want riot with anybody. It is the man who is unhappy and because he is not able to do any- thing about it, who looks around for a scapegoat upon whom he can blame all his troubles. He ha- turaliy turns against a group whose members have a different appear- ante and different customs from his own. The long-range cure for this disease is bette~ living conditions, housing and employment. But it is not of the long.range treatment I want to speak, but of the imme- diate, simple things that you and I can do to stop these tensions before they brsak. Seven Steps For Breal # Tension First, there are seven things you must know about. One of the first signs of trouble is the rumor crop. You begin to hear a lot of stories most of which later will prove to have been untrue. They may be started by subversive groups; some will have a grain of truth in them. They will include tales of planned, imminent violence; of some group arming itself for attack or outbreak. Then come stories of violent as- s nit, crime and murder. This creates the beginning of tension; the group acoused becomes frightened and shows it. This lends color to the tales. Then come the "incidents." Incidents usually begin to occur in crowded places. They might be passed off and forgotten if a back- ground of hate, fear and suspicion had not been built up. As one ob- server said to me: "Riots always start when folks get out and bump into each other." The third point to look for when it is clear that rumors have been thick nd incidents have begun to happen is some subversive group which may be promoting the trouble for its own ends. Some of these groups will have very high and mighty ideals and very frequently they will be wr pped up in the flag. (Ku Klux, Black Legion, etc.) The fourth point to watch is crime reports because it is really the hooligan element which finally steps in to do the actual rioting. there is evidence of increased friendliness with the hooligan ele- ment nd of a distrust of the police by the minority group it usually means that the tension has reached a high point -- the forces of order and the forces of disorder are mak- ing common cause against the 81- leged threat of the minority. The two other danger points are congestion, of which I spoke before (bumping into each other) which may grow out of crowded housing, and labor conditions where the minority protests or appears to threaten to protest discrimination in hiring and firing. With these points as a guide any citizen can learn to recognize the symptoms of danger. There are plenty of people in any community who know what is happening -- the people whose work takes them into the danger zones, like social workers and police reporters. A school teach- er can learn a lot from what the children s y and do. But long before the situation reaches even the rumor stage there must be emergency planning in the community. A program must be set up in which certain groups have cer- tain definite things to do the moment the "observers" see the danger sig- nals. Here they are: Be sure the mayor knows exact. ly what steps to take to get the help of the state militia. Have the clergy- men lined up to use their influence nd if necessary appear in person --mobs respect the church. Work out school programs, radio pro- grams, newspaper c mpaigns--the veterans organizations and the boy scouts Will help; the civic and pub- lie utilities, labor and business Wi co oper te. 4' While President Truman was still on the high seas en route for home, he and his staff began the careful briefing of the correspondents, tell. ing them many detats which were not for publication but which will gradually find their way into the public prints. They also gave out specific news items for publication, one of which stated that it was largely the sug- gestions of the American delegation ~hieh made up the agenda. This President Harry 8. Truman may or may not have been aimed at comments in Washington by anti- administration spokesmen who charged that the communique of the Big Three seemed to reflect chiefly Russian demands. I believe that history will show that the President's claim will be literally true. This may not mean that America got the majority of the things she wanted but rather that what could be agreed upon was largely the result of the President's policy of insisting on a solution by compromise rather than a stale- mate. The great test of America's posi- tion will come later. We are the most conservative of the great powers. We are the only one in which capitalism is threatened by attack from within more than from without. I mean that the ma- Jority of the nation undoubtedly fa- vor capitalism whereas the present British government (the only other large derrtocratic power as we ac- cept democracy) is socialistic. Dan- gers to the American capitalistic sys- tem, most observers in Washington agree, come from a small group whose selfish interests are the greatest threat to the system of priv te enterprise. NO DUKE CHUBCHILL Whan Winston Churchm turm down knighthood this week, his son. Randolph Churchill, probaklyi heaved big algh of relief. For it meant th t his father, in turning down this lesser honer, probably would not accept a duke- don or any other high reward. Should the elder Churchill accept a peerage, he wotdd move into the House of Lords, which would mean that his son, Randolph, upon h/s father's death, automatically would become a lord, thereby forfeiting the chance of a fighting political career as a commoner. To inherit a title is the last thing young Churchill wants. His future career lies in the House of Com- mons, like his father. Know~mg Ms son's .ambition, kite prime minister used to hold a sward of Damocles over Rsn- dolph's head. When the mer- curial Randolph got out of hand, his father hall-Jokingly would warn: "Tut, tat. Be careful or I'U take a peerage." BAI"rLE OVER STEEL One of the hottest fights in the whole hot history of the War Pro- duction boa~d has been raging back- stage regarding the future alloca- tion of steel .~o industry. It is fight affecting almost every business in the country -- large and small -- and if the big industry boys get their way, civilian manufactur- ers will-get less material even than during the third quarter of this year, when we were still fighting two-front war. The fight is over how sheet steel shall be allocated. RasleaHy, this boils down to whether the big automobile companies will set it all, or whether ether manufacturers will be given at lenst a little. It is exactly the sam fight, in re- verse, which occurred before Pearl Harbor. At that time, the automobile industry was using up most of the sheet steel War production was held up until their output could be curtailed, and the auto boys pulled U sorts of wires to keep on pro- ducing cars. Now, the same wires re belkag pulled to let steel,be completely free, and not allocated'to anyone. This Is Just another way of saying that the utomobile eomp nies will get it ll, bee use theF re the biggest peace- time buyers of steel and the steal companiu naturaLly like to plea~ their best customers. B/K Business WPB Today, the War Production board, under chairman "Cap" Krug, la more big - business - controlled than ever, so the automobile boys may get their way. Their Ight inside WPB is be- ing led by Vice Chslrman Harold Boesobonatein, whose Strum corn* Imay sells headlights to auto manui~einrers, He and other WPB mosuls argue that the present "controlled materisds phm'" should be "open-ended," in other words, after a steel mill has completed its "must" SOV- ernment orders, it can sell what. ever steel Is left over to any- one it wishes. Hitherto, farm msehlnmT, hardwnre, the railroads and v~- rions war4upporting industries got definite steel allocations from the government. They were ILl- ways assured some steel, under the new proposal, however, they would have to sernmble for it in competition with the auto- mobile oompanles. While the railroads, farm imple- ment companies, et al, doubtless can look after themselves, long list o~ small manufacturers also would be affected -- those making hardware, electric irons, washing machines, etc. Hitherto, they have been able to get a certain amount of steel al- located to them by WPB. But under the proposed new plan, they would have to scramble for it. And in any battle with the auto companies, it ia not difficult to guess where they would come out. Actually there will be very little steel to scramble for. After war needs and war-supporting needs are met, it is estimated only about 1,- 000,000 tons of sheet steel will be left over. If WPB moguls have their way, however, the scramble will begin in the fourth quarter of this year. NOTE--It will be up te new War Mobilizer John Snyder to make the final decision.