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The Billings County Pioneer
Beach, North Dakota
September 6, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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September 6, 1945

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/ [] [] VOL. XXVII. MEEK)RA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, September 6, 1945 i I w ws A.A s,1S l U.3. Moves to Take Over I " ' i ISee Early End to Rationingll. tricken Europe Need [As Recnvers,2on P. ceo,oQUickensl'/ Large Imports of Food ?.'; ';:: t?" i Reds have uSa, inca a 5O per cent f [Never Able- o e for Its JZXA:~ interest in vital railways in the lat-/ r Work Out Occupation tar province, secured Port Arthur [ Teeming Masses, Old World s Demands Its huge guns belching smoke as a naval base and been allowed and fire and bombarding the Nip- ponese coastline just a few weeks ago, the huge 45.000 ton U. S. battle- ship Missouri was to become the peace ship of World War II, with the Japanese formally signing surrender papers aboard the vessel in Tokyo bay. Taking place several days after U. S. airborne troops were to de- scend on the Atsugi airdrome south- west of Tokyo to spearhead the Jap- anese occupation along with ma- rines landing simultaneously at the Yokasuka naval base 20 miles be- low the Nipponese capital, the for. real surrender ceremony was to see General MacArthur signing for the Allies as a whole, with Ad- miral Nimitz countersigning for the U. S. and Admiral Fraser for the British. In working out the initial occupa- tion Rlans. General MacArthur and his sfAff left no stone unturned to assure the safe conduct of the U. S. forces. At the same time, the new Nipponese government headed by Prince Higashi- Kuni strove to prepare the population to accept the American landings peaceably and refrain from riotous outbreaks, imperiling the whole surrender. Under General MacArthur's plans, the Japanese were ordered to ground all planes and disarm aH ships at sea several days before the first U. S. landings. Then, while sprawl- ing Allied fleets moved in close to Nipponese shores, ,the Japanese were to immobilize all vessels in Tokyo bay and strip coastal guns and anti-aircraft batteries. As a final precaution, the Japa- nese were ordered to evacuate all armed forces out of the immediate landing area, to forestall possible at- tack by fanatical troops. Guides and interpreters were to be furnished to facilitate General MaeArthur's con- trol of the occupation territory. Yap Casualties In the first full admission of the intensity of Allied air attacks, the Japanese news agency Domei re- ported that 44 of the nat/on's 300 or more cities were almost completely wiped out by bombings, with a toll of ~0,000 killed, 412,000 wounded and 9,200,000 left homeless. Of the total, the atomic boml~ dropped on H/roshlma and Nagasaki accounted for 90,000 k/lied and 180,- 000 wounded, Domei said. Declarin4 the toll may be even greater, the $aps revealed that many of. the burned are not expected to survive because of the nature of the wounds, w ile pereons only touched by the fl m later weakenandoften die. Reportfag that 2,210,000 homes were completely demolished or burnt down, and 90,000 partly dam- aged, Domei said that in addition to the 44 cities almost completely wiped out, 37 others, ineluding T kyo, suffered loss of over S0 per cent of their built-up area. Of 47 provinces, only 9 escaped with rela- tively minor damage, Domef re- vealed. CHINA: Key Position Relieved from Japanese encroach- ment, and pivotal point of the Orient, China has assumed a renewed importance in the far e a s t, with Chiang Kai - shek and his Premier T. V. Soong playing their cards well in t h e complicated game of internation- al politics. Backed by the U. S Chiang's gov- ernment holds the upper hand in the vast, sprawling na- tion with its 400,- 000,000 people, with its position greatly strengthened In dealings with the Chinese commu- nists, Russia and even Britain. Chiang and Though the Reds T.V. Soong have openly defied Chiang, U. S. financial and material support of his regime, plus efforts of Ambassador Hurley to bring the two dissident factions together, have enhanced his standing. In his deal- ings with Russia, U. S. and British pressure has resulted in recognition of China's sovereignty over Inner Mongolia and Manchuria, though the use of the ice-free port of Dairen. By marching his armies into the crown colony of Hong Kong. which the British wish to retrieve. Chiang even struck up a bargaining position with London. RECONVERSION: Pace Quickens Breathless trying to keep up with relaxation of unending wartime con- trols, the nation contemplated early removal of meat. tire and shoe ra- tioning, even as the government re- moved restrictions on industry to permit full-steam ahead on recon- version. Following a previous announce- ment that the government had abolished packer set-asides on beef. veal and ham supplies for the army and other federal agencxes, an early end of rationing was expected with OPA's revelation that it would re- duce meat point values in view of[ military cutbacks in orders and a prospective heavy fall run of cattle. With the announcement that tire production would be doubled to 4.- 000,000 monthly during October, With industry gtvea the alZmd for clvi,su production, msm- ufa~'ers strove for speedy eaqmt fer the peut-up pin,war mmtu~. Here, body fa heinz eltm8 m elu~. shp d ue of the lmmg os~ te tea ~ et mar prodmetion November and December, m~M- c/el pred/ctlous that rationing ot cords would be te~ted within 90 daYs were strengthened. Forecasts that shoe re~ also may be eaded shortly were imp- ported by an announcement of the Tanners Council of America that l~Oduetion of civil/an fontwear~may exceed 30,000,000 pair a month for the rest of the year, the highest level ever reached by the industry. By lopping off most controls an~ only retaining authority to a~ure mflltary and other emergency pro- duetion, and break bottlenecks in scarce materials for civilian output, the government gave manufacturers the go-ahead signal on such a wide variety of items as refr/gerators, radios, dlsti/led spirits, trucks, oil furnaces, construction machinery, metal furniture, motorcycles, photo- graphic films, storage batteries, waxed paper, sanitarT napkins, ma- chine tools, shipping containers, pulpwood and commercial chemi- cals. Removal of all lumber controls except those necessary to fill prior- ity orders assured a speedy re- sumption of both industrial and home building construction. U. S. CREDIT: Supplants Lend.Lease Following termination of the 41- b/Ilion-dollar lend-lease program, Foreign Economic Administrator Leo Crowley revealed that the U. S. was prepared to advance six billion dollars in credits to other nations for procurement of material in this country to bolster sagging postwar economies. At the same" t/me, Crowley said that negotiations might begin with. in the next year for settlement of lenddease accounts, which find U. S. contributions of 41 billions offset by only 5 billions in mutual as- s/stance. Under plans outlined by the FEA chieftain, the U. S. would furnish 3 billion dollars in long-term credit to nations wishing to purchase goods already contracted for to fill can- celled lend-lease orders. An addi- tional 2 billion 800 million dollars would be advanced for procuring in- dustrial and other goods. Aggravated by Ravages of War. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU ServiCe, 1616 Eye Street, NW, Washington, D. C. I've Just come up from the barn- yard of a Maryland farm. In the barn was a comfortable crop of hay Here to discuss increased financial and wheat, outside a herd of fat assistance for rehabilitating France, Guernseys of all ages from a two internationalization of/he Rhineland weeks' old calf up. Most of the and re-establishment of his country I chickens were already cooling them- as a world power, Gen, Charles ~loi selves in a locker. There was only Gaulle {ief|l arrived in Washing. one thing for the farmer to com- mon, D. C to be greeted by Presi. plain about and the hogs got a dent Tr~unan. break out of that--the oats. "Just too wet this year." he said. QUISLING: rot fear It wo d set the barn On Spot afire, if he stored it in that condi- tion, the farmer explained that he Fighting back savagely, big, bulky "had to dump it" and a batch of Vidkun Quisling was hard pressed shoats were leaping around in the in defense of his collaboration with spoiled grain like jack-rabbits. Most the Germans in Norway as the of the farmers hereabouts lost their state presented an avalanche of evi- oats, too. dence purporting to show that he All week in Washington. I'd been had co-operated closely with the reading, talking and thinking about Nazis in their heavy-handed occu- farm products along with our other pation of the country, reconversion problems, We. in the Quisling ~vas first taken back by United States, are going to get only For the same reason, the distribu. state presentation of reportedly cap- about three-quarters of what wetion was far better than in Ameri- tured German documents atatingraise this year, according to unoffi- ca. Regimentation was more strin. that the Nazis had used information eial estimates. Europe is going to gent. The government in England supplied by him in their invasion of need about 25 per cent more food bought all the food and distributed Norway. The collaborationist also and textiles thanshe normally It itself. It cracked down hard on was shaken by charges that he had needs, the black markets. In this country, turned over to the Germans a corn- I hear the questions asked: Whypopular opinion prevented such ln- munist leader blocking his politieal should we be expected to send all terference with private enterprise. program and also denied a reprieve this food to Europe? Why can't she And so in America we permitted to an official sentenced to death for produce her own? Are the people too the processing and distribution in. refusal to force Norwegian girls to lazy, or inefficient or what? dustries to operate at a profit. In work for the Nazis. I put those two questions to a Britain, it was a non-profit, govern- Throughout the trial, Quisling de- member of the department of earl- meat operation. Rationing was fiantly asserted that he had played eulturo who is just back from an in- strleter, too. with Naziism in an effort to prevent spection tour of Europe. So much for Britain's wartime ef- fort. Now, what about the efficiency British establishment of bases in "Europe has always imported of her product/on in normal times? Norway in 1940 and possible inca. food, in peace and in war, in fat sion of the Scandinavian peninsula years and lean," he answered. '~oMy informant gave me some is. by Russia from the north and Ger. send food to Europe /~ the naturaI presslve figures. many from the south to thwart the thing. Not to send it would be un- He pointed to America's two typi. move. He also ela/m~d to have natural." eal farm states which taken together worked ferventi~ from 1918 for the are ~tmt about equal to Brltain in creation of a German, British and Food Production area: Iowa and Indiana. Believe it Scandinavian bloc to arrest the de- 7*0/)~p Fgn~helr or not in normal times Britain pro- veiopment of Communism in Eu- "In 1945, Europe's production was duces more wheat, barley and oat= rope. 10 per cent under her normal pro- than those two state= combined. PACIFIC: duction. Next year, production will Britain also produces more cattle be lS per eunt under this year. That than Tnas wMch is six times as ~$k B(~@$ means the people of Europe will large--more potatoes than all our Taking a rea~ktic view of the Pa. need =IS per cent more than in not~. oMM potato ~te~ /r~lud/ng Maine eifl situatiou, in wlMeh the U. S. real times. It does not neceuarlly and Idaho, more dairy product= than as the greatest power, the mean thattheUnitedStatas wiH~Kr- Wieconsin. house naval affairs committee de. rdsh a total of 25 per cent more of '~h~ why on earth," I inter. mended that this country be given everything. For instance, Canada ru~pted. "can't they had themselves control over both Allied and former will furnish more wheat than before over there?', Japanese bases for the construe- so we won't have to increase our Back ease ~e amnver: "Fur the t/on of a powerful defe~alve ~stem quota, but we shall probably be same reason that New York state ~qmbh~ Of re~hflf~g, a,om an~ called upon for more of the protaln with Its skilled farmers, Its ~ple~ direction, foods, eel~eelallythemflkproduet= did ~ Its ttp-te-date methods, Before answering my second quay. can't feed itself any more than the Issued by Chairman Vtnmm tion, my fr/and explained the para. D/sir/at of Columbia can. In Europe (Des Ga.) the congressional dox that peace has cut down Eu- as in these more heavily populated proposal urged U. S. domination of rope's producing power. While the areas in the United States, there are the whole Pecifle area stretching European nations were overrun with Just too many people." from the Hawaflans westward to the a conquering army, he elucidated, If we want these Europeans to Philippines and Ryukus, and in- while part of the fields of the con- live and prosper and earn the money eluding the Ma~ha~ Caroline and tinent were being riddled with shells to buy our automobiles and type. Marianas islands. In addltioa, the and later gutted with tanks, produe, writers and other gadgets which house committee said, the. U. S, tlon fell off only some 10 per cent keep our factories running, we'll sh~.kl t~ke-over Americun devel- f~om ~0rmaL This ts the reason: have to keep on sending food to Eu. oped bases in the Manus islands in The Germans had to maintain s rope as we always have. the Australian Admiralties; Gnadal- working economy in the nations canal in the British Solomons; Es- they occupied and also they did not Recently I was asked to make a plritu Santo in the, British-French wish to destroy the resources of recording which was to be de.nosited New Hebrides and Noumea in French New Caledonia. territory which they hoped to ex- in the archives of George Washing ploit. When they knew they were ton university, as part of'a series I Justifying American control over beaten, they stole what they could made for the use of the class of the ] Pacific bases, the house committee eat or carry and tried to destroy year 2007. It is a somewhat fantastic-] cited "the loss of American lives what they couldn't move; much idea to be sure, but it is seriously [ in taking these bases. The expendi- breeding stock had already been undertaken and I responded in as ture of vast sums of American men- slaughtered, serious a vein as I could muster. I ey in establishing and equipping Of course, we must not be led can't repeat what I said as that is these bases. The great depend-astray by this figure of 10 per cent supposed to be held as a big our- ence of the world upon the United --the decrease in the total produc- prise for the class of 2007. However. States for maintaining peace in the tion in Europe in wartime. There the whole idea intrigues me so much Pacific and world " was a sharp cut in certain products that I have been thinking about xt SALAP, IES: and an increase in others. The en- ever since. tire pattern of the agriculture was The fact that this year begins Bar Lifted altered. For example, the livestock what some people call the "atomic With President Harry S. Truman raisers always imported feed. age" makes the speculation all the having set the pattern for removal When it was cut off there had to be more interesting. In 1939 when the of controls over wages and salaries a shift from livestock to root crops, first suceessful experiment in "split- under jurisdiction of the War Labor Potatoes and beets make for a very ttng the atom," and releasing the board, the treasury announced re- monotonous diet, but they were fill. vast power which literally holds the laxation of restrictions on salaries lng while they lasted, world together was reported chiefly of administrative, executive and The Germans organized and regt- in scientific publications, as of great professional personnel under its rnented farm labor in all countrie~ academic importance. One writer wartime supervision, including their own. They main- said the experiment might have no tained transportation fairly well un- results of interests beyond the labo- In both cases, employers will be til just before the invasion. Now ratory. Six years later continua. able to grant raises to workers pro- transportation is utterly disrupted, tion of those experiments ended vided they do not use the increase there are millions of displaced per. the Japanese war. as a basis for requesting higher ceil- sons, farm machinery is brokenThe forces released, however, ing prices. In instances where price down. were largely uncontrolled and pure. changes are involved, government But this doesn't answer question ly destructive. agencies will retain authority over number two: Why can't Europe Will the class of 2007 have to look proposed raises, feed herself in normal times? Are up the word "coal" because |t has At the same time, the WLB is the people so much lazier or be- been forgotten? Will all our sod- empowered to grant wage increases hind-the-times that they can't make era means of generating power be where substandard rates are in of- things grow as we do? displaced by the atom's forces, care- feet to bring them more evenly in Before answering that question, fully controlled and directed to the line with living costs, my friend reminded me that it was uses of Peace and progress? true that nobody always works at maximum efficiency, that most pen- pie can do more when they have to than when they don't, especially when there is some extraordinary urge such as war. Take our own case: with thousands of farm boys in the munitions factories and with the armed forces, what did America do? American farm production in 1944 was increased, despite its handicap. 36 per cent beyond the 1935 to 19391evel. Britain" a Farm Output High I But what about England where the ] boys were in the army and the muni- tions factories, too; where farmers had to farm in the blackout and around the shell-craters in their fields? The British increased their production 65 per cent -- they were nearer to the front than we were. They had a greater incentive, NO. 14. TREASURY'S COMPLEX TAX PROBLEMS (Ed. Note--In Drew Pearson's ahaenee, Fred M. Vinse~ seo- retar~ of the treasury, eontrib. utes a guest column on one of the most important problems e/ the treasury--4ax evasion.} Drew Pearson has offered me his Washington Merry-Go-Round eol. umn to present any subject ot in. terest to the treasury department and to the American people. I know of no subject of more immediate concern than the treasury's eam- palgn against tax evasion. Here, in a nutshell, is the sltuation~ the treasury faces: In 1940 there were 4,999,999 in. dividual taxpayers. Today there are more than 50,000,- O00. In an effort to handle the vastly increased task of processing returns and colleeting taxes the personnel of the bureau of internal, revenue was in- creased from about 22.000 to about 50.- 00O, With the manpowo Fred Vinson er shortage the bu- reau could not ex- pect to increase its forces propor- tionately with the number of tax- payers. And in many respects bu- reau employees found their work increased out of proportion to the number of returns. Under the with- holding program, a large part of the work formerly done by the taxpay- er is now done In the bureau. The processing of wartime tax relief pro- visions also threw much additional work upon the bureau. Under these conditions the normal investigative work of the bureau inevitably suf- tared. I ,The bureau has always proceed- ed upon the theory that the average American is honest, and that a small but efficient force could deal with the dishonest. But millions of us are now tax- payers and the honest must be pro- teated against those among us Who. tempted by war-swollen Incomes and shortages in elvflian goods and sere- tees, would cheat the rest of us. No clay, however small, ean afford to be without a police force. And no elty, whleh has experienced a polm- latlon increase of more than ten- fold in a five-year period, would flflnk of trying to get along without enlarging it= law onb~rceme~t 8roup8. That Is why the treasutT b~ build. In= up its inveatigattve f~rees. O~r obJeet la to recruit and train $,0 0 m@n. will be no Gempo. It will be a ta~psytts" law ~ore~t protectinI the go~ernmunt's interest in taxes, and at the same tame pe~ t~tlng the honest taxpayer agal~t the black market operator, the rack- eteer ~nd every other kind of taz evader. And it will be good buSi- m~ss, toe. We apaet to collect $:~ for every one spent. When taxes awe evaded fire honest taxpayer loses, slnee ev- ery dellsr evsded ine~eamm by that much the burden berne by ether taxpayers. In many oases, the honest tazp~yer his espe. clal reeaon to welcome the tax- evasion campaign. A reputable furrfer or Jeweler, for instance, esuld not continue in business if a next-door competitor should be permitted to sell furs or Jew- elry without collecting excise taxes. Any business firm which cheats the government by fall. ing to pay for the services which government provides Is engaged in dishonest competition, Just as much aa if it cheated the land- lord out of his rent or workers out of their pay. Taxes are high, but they must be collected fair- ly. And so long as any substan- tlal portion of the taxes due remains uncollected, It operates to defer the reduction of tax rates. Much more than expedience di- rects this tax-evasion campaign. Fundamental morality is involved. The man who evades taxes picks his neighbor's pocket. And in these times, when we are asking so much from the men in uniform, any pock. et picking at their expense becomes unthinkable. As President Truman has said: "We are not fighting this war to make millionaires, and certainly we are not going to allow the black. market operators or any other rack. eteers to be in a favored class, when the men in the armed forces, and our citizens generally, are sacrific- ing so heavily."