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September 13, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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September 13, 1945

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/ i v VOL. XXVII. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, September 13, 1945 NO. 15. WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS---------. WAR CRIMES: Japan;I] List Defendants MacArthur Lands to Rule .ot as blustery as he was when Reiehsmarshal Hermann Goering Allied Occupation of [Press Demands for Open AiringI ,Germaro, ruled~e European roost, I uled for trial as war criminals ear- [Of Disaster at Pearl Harbor ""'' "'d | ~ Released by Western Newspa=U:~,~ 'axyNamedof formerWithNaziG eringbigwigsWaS gal'accused fierm#ny Thankless Job ~EsV~JO~S~O:pEe; ~t:a' ~aei w~s::~';:ar:t~ .e"'rny t'thtsraew'o'te") of preparing the nation financ4ally In conference aboard USS Missouri, Jap n~vy officers chart Tokyo bay for Admiral Halsey's staff prel~ratory to American fleet's triumphanl entry as part of General Ma~cArthur's occupation force. JAPAN: Mac's Show Cool as a cucumber, Gem Douglas MacArthur. stepped from a trans- port plane at Japan's Atsugi air- drome 20 miles southwest of Tokyo, smoking his large, corncob pipe. Stopping to look around, he saw the field abuzz with activity, as mem- bers of the 11th air borne division, landing from scores of aircraft, busied themselves for the occupa- tion. Evidently pleased, Japan's new boss then made his way forward, stopping to greet Lieutenant Gen- eral Eiehelberger, chief of the, U. S. 8th army, which had fought in the Philippines. "Hello, Bob," were his first words upon his historic landing on enemy soil. In landing to take over control of Japan, U. S. forces looked upon an extensive scene of devastation in Tokyo and Yokohama, scorched by repeated B-29 and naval carrier raids. Unlike Europe where splin- tared masonry cluttered every- thing, charred hulks and ashes" were all that remained from thous nas Oriental frame buildings. Whole areas were burned out, with only buildings encompassed by spacious walks, lawns or clearings spared fi'om the roaring flames which once swept block upon block. Despite the widespread damage. Japanese held their heads high in contrast to the Germanz, who had humbled themselves in an effort to please their conquerors. Peering from windows as O.i.s streamed, bY, or walking the, streets, or setting up temporary shelters from salvaged tin, the little brown people remained perfectly composed with typical Orlental indifference. lh.omhdag to match MscAr- thur's innding at Atengl airfield b, sheer drams was the sched- uled surrender ceremonies glmard the US8 Mloscurl in Tokyo bay, with Lt. Gen. Joan- than Wainwright, resumed from a prison camp in Manchm'la, present to witness the capitals- tion of the iutughtyimporiul staff which dictated terms to htm up- on the fall of Corregldor ever three years ago. LEND.LEASE: Asks Write-Of~ In asking congress to write off tl~e 42 billion dollar lend-lease program, constituting 15 per cent of the total U. S. war expense, President Harry S. Truman declared that adequate repayment not only had been made by recipients through their war ef- forts, but also through their agree- ment to promote international trade through a lowering of tariff and oth- er barriers. Further, the chief executive said that if so huge a debt were to be added to the financial obligations al- ready incurred by Allied nations, . it would react disastrously upon our own trade, decreasing production and employment at home. Whereas there once was talk that the U. S. would retake tanks, trucks or machine tools lend-leased, top of- ficials said, little of such material will be retrieved since reclamation would only add to the mounting stockpiles of war surplus in this country. Of the 42 billion dollars of lend-lease, against which the U. S. obtained only 5 billion dollars in corresponding aid, half was in mili- tary supplies and the remainder in civilian goods like food. PEARL HARBOR: Rap Report Despite release by army and navy boards of inquiry of 200,000 word re- ports covering the Pearl Harbor disas- ter of December 7, 1941, congressional circles remained dissatisfed o v r findings, demand- ing open trials of principals involved and access to infor- mation upon which the investigators Gen. M~rshsll based their conclu- sions. No sooner had the reports been made public, adding the names of Gem George C. Marshall, Adm. Harold C. Stark and former Seers- tary of State Cordell Hull to those of Maj. Gen. Walter C. Short and Rear Adm. Husband E. Kimmel for failure to take proper precautions, than Chairman May (Dam Ky.) of the house military affairs committee ~declared he would not stand for "any whitewash." The people are untitled to know the whole truth based on all the facts, he said. On the other side of congress, Senator Taft (Pep Ohio) asserted the reports left a lot to be told, and full evidonce studied by the courts of inquiry should be revealed now that military sscurity no long- er is involved. Issuance of the report had ofl~er repercussions, too. Presidont Harry S. Truman and Secretory of War Henry St/moon took strong excep- tion to the censure of General Mar- shall, the two terming criticism of the army chief of Staff "entirely un- Justified" while praising Ida "great skill, energy and e~eieney" throughout the Pearl Harbor epi- sode. In naming General Marshall, the investigators charged he failed to keep General Short, Hawaiian army commander, fully advised as to the growing tenseness of the Japanese situation; failed to send him addi- tional instructions after the U. S. ultimatum to Tokyo made war in- evitable; failed to furnish him on the evening of December 6 and morning of December 7 with critical intelligence indicating a rupture of relations with Nippon, and failed to look into and determine the state of readiness in Hawaii during the crit- ical period. Then chief of naval operations but since retired, Admiral Stark was censured for delaying a warning of an impending attack on Pearl Har- bor by sending it by cable rather than telephone. The two hours dif- ference in transmission would have enabled the navy to make prepara- tions for the assault. In singling out Hull, the boards averred that he might have conduct- ed negotiations with Jap Emissaries No- mura and Kurusu differently to gain precious time for the army and navy to gird for action. To crown the navy's negligence, pointed up by fail- ure to take proper precautions even after being apprized of a Jap task force's Cordell Hull presence in near Hawaiian waters, subordinate officers did not report the sinking of an enemy submarine in outer Pearl Harbor the morning of the fateful attack to the army. and industrially for war; scheming diplomatically for advantage; regi- menting the nation internally, and leading the German armed legions into attack. Next to Goering, Rudolph Hess, Hitler's choice for his successor be- fore he flew to Scotland in a vain effort to receive Allied support for an attack on Russia, heads up the list of defendants. Close behind are Joachim yon Ribbentrop, who. as foreign minister, directed Nazi diplomacy; Martin Bormann, head of the people's army; Franz yon Papen, big shot in German politics and master of international in- trigue; Adm. Karl Doenitz, who di- rected U-boat warfare, and Field Marshal Wilhelm Kietel, chief of the wehrmacht. Joint U. S British, Russian and French plans to try the ac- cused before an international military tribunal in the former Nazi shrine of Nuerenberg, how- ever, did not meet with the full approval of many distinguished members of the American Bar association. Declaring that Aliied procedure was without historical precedent. P. F. Gault, constitutional and inter- national law expert, said the sys- tem of trial offered a dangerous pat- tern which might be followed in the future against the President of the U. S. down to ordinary citizens. Un- der procedure established, trials r~0" be held outside the presence of the accused; no appeal is provided against Judgment; the tribunal may admit any evidence it wishes, and also determine the relevancy of tes. timony. I Working Capital Up Well heeled to meet reconver- sion problems, rJ. S. corpora- tions possessed almost 47 billion dollars worth of working capital on March 31, the Securities and Exchange commission reported. Of the total of almost 47 bil- lion dollars. SEC said nearly 25 billion dollars was in cash on hand or in banks. Holdings of government securities showed a slight drop to almost 20 billion dollars, still substantially in ex- eess of tax liabilities of about 16 billion dollars. In additloc to current work- Ing capital, corporations have been promised further iner~ ments through income and ex- ee~ profits credits; allow noes for ~epped-up debt retirement of emergency facilities, at~l pTo- visions for new figuring of bas~ period returns foe excess pr t detorminat~m. POSTWAR ARMY: Asks Dratt Even as Pre~dent Harry S. Tru- man asked for an extonsion of draft of men 18 throtagh 25 for two-year periods of service to provide re- placemonts for disehargees, both the army and navy announced revi- sion of their plans to step up the release of enlisted personnel end of. fleers. With congressional sentiment for extension of the draft still lukewarm, Mr. Truman declared that the army would be unable to meet postwar demands through volunteering if dis- charges were to continue at an ap- preciable rate to relieve present sol- diers from extensive overseas serv- ice. To speed up recruiting, how- ever, the President recommended that the regular army ceiling of 280,000 be raised and inducements offered volunteers. Meanwhile, the army revealed plans for lowering the point-stand- ard for discharge from 85 to 80 to bring about release of 6.050,000 G.I.s by next July. Assuming there will be 500,000 new draftees and 300,000 volunteers, army strength would be pegged at 2,500,000 men. in addition te announcing that the point score for enlisted l~r- sounel would be cut, the army disclosed that officers hereaft- er would also be discharged on a general basis rather than after individual review of their need as t present. Further, the army said no men with 60 or more points would be sent over- seas and the discharge age would be lowered from 38 years. To help expedite discharges of 2,839,000 men within the next year, the navy announced a revision of Methods for Restoring Normalcy to Reich Meet With Criticism From Smaller Liberated Nations of Europe. By BAUKHAGE News Analysl and Commentator. WNU Service, 1616 ! Street N. W Washington, D. C. With the fanfare accompanying the first steps of the occupation of Japan now dying on the Pacific breezes, some hints of the heavy responsibili- ties of Uncle Sar~'s European problems begin to appear. Already the small nations which were occupied by the Axis and whose peoples resisted the Nazi-Fas- cist yoke are being heard from in a rising chorus of complaint and criticism against the Allies. Belgium and Holland are perhaps loudest in their charges of what they feel is discrimination against them in favor of their former enemy- neighbor, but voices are raised as far away as Greece and Yugoslav- ia, which say that Germany and Italy should not receive material assistance on the same basis s the once-occupied countries. The charges from Holland are the most specific. The Netherlahds gov- ernment has presented claims for a share in both the external and in- ternal assets of Germany as repara- tions. The note handed the Allies asks for immediate return of loot now within the occupied zones in Germany, which the Dutch claim is listed and identifiable. They say that parts of their country were stripped bare of capital and consumer goods; that some of the former, such as machinery, Is now being used to the advantage of the Germans. In addition to the formal protest, Col. J. C. A. Faure, deputy chief of staff of the Netherlands civil affairs administration, was quoted in Lon. don as saying that the Allied mill. tary governors were playing into German bands when they prevented the Dutch, Belgians and French from reclaiming immediately ma- chinery and other property stolen from them by the Nazi armies. He said that protests to SHAEF, while it existed, were fruitless "and when the new child (the British and American occupation urg nlzatinn) was bern it was too young," He ex. plalned it was understandable that since the Allied commanders in their respective spheres h vo thelr hands full in creating order out of oh us in Germany, each wants to do a good Job, and for that reason doesn't want to lose any material aid that will help, But that doesn't provide much comfort for the Dutch or Belgian farmer who looks across the frca- tier and sees a C~rman peasant driv. ins home a cow which he swears he knows Is his by its crumpled horn and the spot on its rump. The same applies to the factory owner who is positive his property is turning wheels in Germany. Army Aim: Speed Job From sources in close touch with conditions in Germany I heard thls exampts~ which pretty well echoes Dutch explanations but doesn't solve their problem. For instance: An As- lied commander moves into a Ger. man town. One of the first things he wants is light and power. His men repair the power plant. Later it is claimed that the main dynamo was stolen from Holland. That is not the commander's affair. Light- ins the town is. His Job Is to re- store the place as nearly as possible to a self-supporting community. But that ts not the end, for the restoration of European economy as a whole is of vital importance and naturally those nations which Suf. fered under the German heel feel they should have first call on the sinews of normality, especially when those sinews were torn from their body economic by Nazi hands. On this score there have already been rumblings of complaint against the American occupation. Already the wheels of German factories are turning In the American zone. The purpose is to manufacture goods and provide services required to keep the occupation forces going and to supply the minimum needs of the community. The Germans have to have shovels and hoes and rakes if they are to till their fields and cultivate their gardens in order to get enough food to live on. These tools, if made and its point-scores to include overseas sold, would be in competition with duty. Previously, it had beengoods the Americans make. But planned to release between 1,500,000 there are not enough ships to carry and 2.500,000 men within 12 to 18 a vast supply of such products months, j across the Atlantic and besides America has a big waiting demand of her own. Therefore, in many cases German capital may be used to resuscitate German factories and Germany money will buy its prod- ucts. The Americans are doing ev- erything to facilitate this type of re- construction (light industry and manufacture of household equip- ment). If necessary and they can do it, they will see that a missing shaft or flywheel is obtained some- how. They permit the Germans to combine partly damaged factories into one complete plant. They en- courage reconversion of certain plants from wartime to civilian use. It so happens that of all the occu- pied zones the one which the Ameri- cans control is capable of creating most easily a balanced economy. It is a land of small towns and vil- lages, most of which were not im- portant enough to have been bombed. It is a land of cattle and of orchards, of fields and meadows. It is highly probable that with American organization to guide the people this area will be the first to regam a fairly normal life. If we don't help the Germans, we'll be criticized for fumbling; the occupation will be made more dif. flcult. If we do help, we will be under heavy criticism from the peo- ples of less fortunate areas and charged with treating the former enemy better than we treat our friends. The British operate in a far less favorable area. for they have the bombed-out Ruhr on their hands and they control a territory whos exist- ence depended on industries which no longer exist and which will not be permitted to exist in the future. Such factories as they can operate to make the community self-sup- porting may well be equipped in part with stolen machinery. Rw Germcm Imdm ry The pattern of Russian occupation is quite different. The Russ/ans know what they ate doing in their ~. They are treating the "little people', with kindling, aumring flum that they need ha~ no fear of opprse- sion. Their t~m~at intontien Is to divide up the land and give ~e Ger- marw a ehunee to win a llvellbond from the soil, meanwhile giviag them thorough indoetrlaat On in the advanto~ of the Soviet form of governm~mt. At the same time they are removln every movable piece of machinery to Rus=a. Meanwhile, Poland will be allowed to serape together such German all- rleultural equipment as she een sal- vase in East Prussia. Disease is- rampant in Poland; there are short- ages in all Minds ot equipment The Germans took most of the agrleul- rural machinery; much of the rest was destroyed and the whole' corm. try wrecked. The other next-door neighbors have not even such an opportunity to recuperate their losses. And so the Americans will prob- ably bear the onus of helping the for- mer enemy most of all, although their only intent Is to carry out the program agreed upon by the Allies. America wants no loot, She does want all she can get in the way of important formulae; all she can learn of German methods; all of the ideas whieh can be adapted success- fully to American life. Already some valuable scientific information has been obtained and in many cases the German scientists, with that disinterested attitude character. istic of their profession, are quite as willing to work in an American lab. oratory as they were in one run by the Nazis. America also wants to finish her occupation Job and get out. A part of that job ia to make the Germans self-supporting. Thus, it is quite likely that an- other complaint will be raised that we are forming too friendly a bond with people of a nation the 'world came to detest so thoroughly. In the years 1940-43, a total of 7,851 persons were killed in farm accidents in the U. S. Machinery caused 47 per cent of the deaths, livestock 20 per cent, and all other causes 33 per cent. Wisconsin was the most danger~ms state for farm workers, with 502 killed in four years; and New York had 456 acci. dental farm deaths. (Note--While Drew Pearson iz o~ vacation, .~retary oI Agriculturo Cli~ ton P. Andsrson contributes a ~ues~ column.) By CLINTON P. ANDE~ON Secretary of Agriculture WASHINGTON. -- The first Sun- day after V-J Day, a friend came by with an automobile to take my family and his for a drive into the country to have dinner with another friend. Nothing like that had hap- ~>ened in years. We were all de- lighted at the chance to ride through country lanes, to talk about the height of the corn, the possibilities of crops, and the probability that we would enjoy meat for dinner. But as we started back ~nto Wash- ington, we could not help but notice that the roads were filling up. There was a long line of traffic and many folks drove by at speeds which seemed reckless to us. They were perhaps driving 40 or 45 miles an hour and we had become accus- tomed to the 35-mile an hour leisure- ly gait. When one speeding ear swirled past us, I heard my wife murmur, "My, what I wouldn't give to have gasoline rationing hack." I began to wonder how many of the things that war had brought to us as sacrifices or privations we would soon come to appreciate aa blessings in disguise. I began to wonder how long it would be before people would sometimes sigh for Some of the real advantages of the days during the war when we all lived a little closer together, a little more simply, and perhaps a little more in the traditional Ameri- can pattern that had started this country on its way to becoming a great nation. Real Values of Life. Do you remember back In the years of the depression that Henry Ansley out in Amarillo, Texas. wrote a book entitled, "I Like the Depression"? Frankly, I liked hi little book, because he told of the blessings that had come to him with reversal in his financial situation. He told of the discoveries that he had made as the period of wild pros- perity passed and the long months of depression set in. He told of the farmers who had gone back to liv- ing on their farma instead of living~ off their farms. The war has 4erie som4~stlaz to an of as. It msde U appreninta some of tim real him et life that mmay ~ us had ~ el. We all eemplnined n llttlo about the wa~, didn't we? We m a little dlanppe, hm~d i we fmmd that ffm stoetm ef ww ears tnmus, but we cevered ~ the, oM ~r ~ l~t b~t~ und w, mld rm~ n Is4 we bad Cm Pusi N 4rh ws. I remember my first experimlc~ With a car pool We had two aub0- mobiles at our house; our next door neighbor had two automobiles at his. place. We were not well acquaint- ed, mustly because it wasn't neee~ sary, until the war vane alo~. Then my next door neighbor and I and two others, who heretofore had gone to our offices by separate means, found ourselves fused to. gerber into car pool. We were ir- revocably tied to each other. We had to rise at the same time in the morning, leave at the same hour for work, and return home together in- the evening. I am sure that at first we all re- sented a little the fact that we lost our freedom of action, but we gained a great lesson in neighborli. hess. We found out that the people who lived next to us might be just as interesting and attractive, Just as pleasant and just as companionable as the people whom we had always known who lived down the street or across the city. Victory Garden Blessing. How many women improved their figures as they walked to market! And think what Victory gardens did for the men! Like Drew Pearson, I will perhaps be away from Washington when this column is printed, away on a short .vacation. While I am gone, someone will be mowing my lawn. During the war I had to mow my own lawn. I couldn't find anyone interested in taking care of my par- ticular little piece of property. And a strange thing happened: I found that ~ could mow it as well as any- one else, that I could mow it quickly, and that I could learn with- in a short time exactly how each particular section could be best mowed to develop the best cut of grass. And I found out also that when I mowed it myself, I not only improved the lawn, I improved my own digestion.