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September 13, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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September 13, 1945
 

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THE BILLINGS COUNTY PIONEER ' i " C,vi,ion 0ses ,or Wor-0eve,o0ed Rodar Prom,sos I I Ka,een Norris Says To Develop !nto Tremendous Industrial Factors u g A,-o,md o --- Bell Syndicate WNU Features Played Important Part In Winning the War for Us--May Win the Peace By Winfield J. Dryden Released by Western Newspaper Union. "Never before did so many owe so much to so few." This expression of Winston Church- ill referred to a few airmen and small ground force on the British isles. The same may be said in regard to radar. Submarines were detected in the night, bombers in the clouds, ships in the fog and troop and land movements in the dark, miles away. Our paratroopers were landed by radar aid, our ships safely escorted, our bombers guided and our troops led by radar. Without radar the war in Europe would still be raging, authorities be- lieve. Radar, making the accurate bombing of Germany possible, as well as providing safety for the transportation of troops, actually made victory on both fronts a real- ity, contributing a big share to the early peace. It has cost the nations hundreds During the conference held. at Mona houses, Cairo, in November, 1943, President Roosevelt, Prime M lntster Clmrchiil and Generalissi- mo Chiang Kal-Ebek were guarded by radar. The radar post shown was built among the historic pyra- mids. of millions of dollars to develop radar. No peacetime industrial or- ganization had the money, the fa- cilities, knowledge or desire to fully develop radar, to bring it to its pres- ent state of development. It re- quired a nation at war, led by far- seeing individuals, to accomplish the almost impossible--with millions of ddllars back of the development, and skilled men with the determination to succeed. Radar Peacetime Factor. Radar has r0any known uses for peace. Postwar travel will become safer. Thousands upon thousands of lives will be saved due to the em- ployment of radar in the air, at sea and on land. Radar sees all, knows all. and tells all It warns of pend- ing catastrophe and provides the eyes for men to see in order to pre- vent accidents on land, sea or air. The discovery of radar may be classed as accidental. Research workers, engaged in short-wave ex- perimentations, nearly 20 years ago found that when waves were beamed on a city, there were oscil- lations on the dial when autos, trqcks and other factors interrdpted the wave. Soon afterwards it was found that planes in the air inter- rupted the waves beamed skyward. It was the next step that measured distance in relation to time interval that brought about the birth of radar. What Radar Is. Radar is an apparatus that sends out short-wave impulses in a nar- row, concentrated beam. impulses that are refected from an object they hit and are returned on re- bound to the receiver, It is based on a simple principle, as simple as the occurrence of an echo. Radar waves traveling with the speed of light, 186,000 miles a sec- ond, streaking across space and re- bounding from the target to return to their starting point. At comparative long range it can pick up cities, determine water bod- ies; pick up ships in the fog; planes in the clouds; submarines or ice- bergs on dark winter nights. The distance of a target from the radar transmitter can be determined. If one-thousandth of a second in- tervenes between the outgoing and incoming signal, then the round-trip distance the radar traveled would be one one-thousandth of 186,000 miles Radar equipment recently made this "search" of surrounding terrain. Lettered on the photograph of the plan position, indicator scope, are designations of points picked up by the radar pulse. a second, or 186 miles. The range of the object would therefore be half of t86 or 93 miles. Radar has been perfected to see beyond the horizon, but it will not see through water at present stage of development. Physical Make-Up. The actual physical make-up of radar sets varies. Uses and manu- facturers will develop different types, as has been true with radios. automobiles or planes. In general, however, tlaey are made up of the following parts: 1. A radio-frequency oscillator, or vacuum tube or group of tubes. These oscillating at a desired fre- quency send out into the air the waves. 2. A modulator sends out the di- rect bursts of the short-waves, which enables the receiver to han- dle them when they return. Each burst of energy is about one- millionth of a second long, the pause between the bursts being a few thousandths of a second in length. 3. An antenna, which directs the waves on their take-off, and beams them in particular direction and dis- tance. It is the beaming on a fixed area. The antenna is adjustable to cover any part of the entire horizon as it revolves in a circle. This photo made during a~dem- onstration of a mobile tralier-mount- ed radar set shows the IHuminated oscilloscope as the image of a bomber, flying at low altitude, came into the range of the radar beam. During war the antiaircraft gun's crew would receive exact location of the bomber immediately. The receiver is the set which picks up the returning waves, sirni- lar to a radio receiving set. 5. The indicator or the brains, is the device which takes the informs- tion gathered by the radio waves and presents them in readable form. The waves are transformed into light patterns on a radar screen. It may consist of one or more cathode- ray tubes similar to the ones used for screen on a television set. On this screen appears a visible elec- tronic beam. Returning radar waves cause the beam to deflect and it is the pattern of deflection that tells the story to the operator. Furnishes Weather Data. Weather forecasting has been add- ed to the scores of uses for peace- time radio development. Prompt and accurate weather information is already being furnished through radar installations at Wright field, Ohio, When used by pilots of commer- cial planes, all that is necessary is for the pilot to push a switch marked "weather," and he gets a picture of advance cloud formations on a special screen. Tracking clouds instead of a target, the screen will indicate approaching storms at a distance of one to two hundred miles. This use of radar, it is beliewed, will result in the saving of thou- in addition sands of lives annually, by planes'I to property loss caused crashing during storms.~ The planes will be guided around only casual o~ce civilities had passed between him and .4rlene." storm area. There is so much moisture in turbulent clouds that the! signals are reflected from the dropsiBy KATHLEEN NORRIS of water back to the plane. Thusi [" AROL NORTH asks me even in darkness, the pilot can detect ~ an age-old question. A#er nine years of happy such an area ahead and go aroundi There is only one reply, married life Carol North, 36, it'Air travel will become safe when[ The question comes to me became aware of a changed radar is in universal use. Not onlyI in a letter that explains that attitude in her husband, Jer. will pilots be able to avoid badI she is 36, has been married ry. He seemed abstracted, ar~ weather, but they will be able to see/ for ten years to a man two although he tried to appear mountains througl~ clouds by day or/ years younger. They have as kind and a~eetionate as night, and thus avoid crashes. [ ever to Carol and the three t~g~.~t ~ttt4~t "! showed Jerry this letter, and he denied the whole thing. He said that twin girls of five, they own their home, have a fine group of friends, club and social in- terests, and an income that for some reason--Carol's in- telligence, I imagine---is ade- quate. She writes me that un- til about a year ago her life was one of cloudless happi- ness. "I don't mean we didn't have worries and responsibili- ties," she says,-"of course we did. But we shared them, and loving Jerry as I did that sharing made everything sweet. I was so proud to be his wife, to spend his money wisely, to raise his children. I would not have changed places with anyone in the world. "Last June I began to notice a change in Jerry. It was a very subtle change, but it didn't es- cape eyes as loving as mine. He was not quite at ease, he was more loving and thoughtful than ever, but curiously abstracted. It made me' anxious, but he assured me that he was not worried about business or health, and I tried to quiet my fears. Office Love Affair. '~'nen I had an anonymous let- ter, very specific and detailed. Jerry was having an affair with one of the secretaries in his office, a grass- widow 26 years old. She has o boy one year old, who lives with the fa- ther, so that while I don't know what the reason for her divorce was, it seems probable she was at fault. '*I showed Jerry the letter, and he denied the whole thing. He said that only casual office civilities had passed between him and Arlene. But a very little investigation proved to me that this was an untruth, anld presently he confessed the whole thing. He seemed overwhelmed with shame, and promised to drop Arlene at once. "This was at Christmas time, and I watched to see the affair end. He did try to end it, becoming very irritable with the children and me at the times when he was not see- ing her, and suddenly sweet and considerate when he broke through his resolution and took up with her again. The wretchedness of these fluctuations I won't try to describe; some wives never will know them, the others hate to be reminded of them. Finally he asked me for a divorce, so that he could marry Ar- lene, but through storms and cold- ness I stuck to my determination that my children should keep their father. "Finally he came to me in what seemed to be true repentance; Ar. lene went away and we were com- pletely reconciled. The joy of being in each other's confidence again It offers additional safeguards to three children; a boy of eight, wm/ty /, tered : children, there was obviously something on his mind. It wasn't business worry, or ill- health. Carol wondered, until she received an anonymous letter from someone in Jerry's o ee. It told how he Was hay. ing an a~air with a pretty di. vorcee, 26 years old. Carol believes that she should try to keep their home togeth. er Jar the sake of the children. She and Jerry talked things over, and he decided to end the a]]air. He seemed truly repentant, Carol says, and they hoped to forget the ugly mat- ter. Carol however, is tortured with doubts and fears. She can never really trust Jerry again. healed my heart of the humiliation and pain I had suffered'so long. We had always kept an unbroken front before the children, and they knew nothing of all this; there seemed to be no reason why we should not forget the whole thing. "But torturing doubts have made me miserable ever since. I find I don't wholly believe Jerry, I don't really trust him. W~en he gives me some excuse for being, away in an evening, or on a Saturday after- noon, l suspect him of starting au- other affair. If some girl in the of. rice speaks of him I wonder if it is with that girL I have seriously thought of trying to get work with the same company, but the impos- sibility of getting domestic help makes that impracticable now. So I am writing to you, to ask you if you think I should trust Jerry, and if I am wrong in my attitude?" He Will Do It Again. My answer is, unfortunately, that I think a man who does this once will do it again. His vanity has been flattered by the sweet poison of Arlene's surrender; his sensations have been far too delightful to be easily forgotten. It may be months, it may be years, but he will fall you again. But that doesn't mean you are wise in distrusting him, spying on him, suspecting him. You are ex.- tremely foolish to put your whole happiness in a weak, attractive husband's hands. Live for other things, your lovely children, your friends and studies and interests and amusementS--in a word, live for yourself. Take from him whatever friendship, companionship, planning, help you can get--resign yourself to the fact that your idol has feet of clay--is selfish, weak, blind some- times. The cruelest revenge you could wreak on such a man is to give him his divorce, and let him find Qut for himself in just what a fo01's para- dise he is living. But for the chil- dren's sake don't do that; just ride out the storm, and realize that no woman can have everything. Africa Gave Us Gladiolus The gladiolus is a native of South Africa, where quite a number of spe- cies are found growing wild. Some are fragrant, and they vary con- siderably in size and shape and date of blooming. Yet all of them would look very poor indeed in contrast to even the poorest of our garden varieties, for a great deal has been accomplished by hybridizers in giv- lug fine color and larger flowers. For this reason none of the wild species are cultivated in our north. ern gardens. air travel, by doing away with col- lisions in the air, and provides a means of safe landing when the field would be otherwise invisible to the pilot. Aids Ocean Travel. On the seas, the use of radar will be just as effective as in the air. It will aid the ship captains in avoid- ing icebergs, other ships, wrecks and land obstructions that have caused the loss of thousands of lives in peace time. Radar will continue to serve the navy in peace, and its installation on ships will make surprise attack impossible. During war, radar has been an important factor in accu- rate aiming of long-ranged naval guns. Its uses on land have not been fully developed. While radar will re- port weather conditions, direct land- ing of planes, there is still a variety of uses for which it will be adapted. Among the recent advocated uses is the installation of radar on the front and rear of all trains. This will aid materially in the prevention of railroad accidents, which have mounted materially. War officials are already busy in developing the radar so that it will become an effective weapon against the atomic bomb, just as it was against the V-2 and other bombs launched by Germany. A good part of the failure of Germany to wreck England was due to installations of radar. The final value'of radar in peace' is not known. It is believed that its usefulnesS* will find no limits. It is Close-up of the antenna of the first complete radar, instMled "topside" a building at the Naval Research laboratory in the late 1930s. It is a so-called "dirigible" antenna, mean- ing it is so mounted that it can be turned to allow for around-tke-com. pass search. This older model has recently been improved. known that radar's uses in peace will be even more beneficial than its use in war had been destruc- tive and deadly. The Civil Aeronautics administra- tion is experimenting with appli- ances loaned by the army and navy. Their hope is to develop instruments to enable tower controllers to see all aircraft within miles, and to in- stall collision-warning devices. In the rapid growth of commer- cial aviation, which is certain to follow immediately after the war, radar will bring new safety. It is held by some authorities that radar installments on planes will be as much a part of the plane's equip. merit as brakes or lights are on a car. BACK in the dim and far away season of 1876, Chicago won the I first National league pennant under ,the leadership of Albert G. Spald- i ing. Today in the 70th campaign of i the older league, Chicago's Cubs are ~heading for another pennant with the Cardinals still in hot pursuit. As the count stands at this moment Chi- cago and New York are tied with 15 National league pennants each and if the Cubs win this year, they will have a one pennant lead over their closest all-time rival from Manhat- tan. After Albert Spalding won in 1876, Cap Anson won three in a row in 1880, 1881 and 1882, and the slugging Cap repeated again in 1885 and 1886. Old Cap wa~ one of the most inter- esting characters I ever knew in base- ball. He was a great hitter for close to 25 years. After the An- son cleanup, the Cubs took a dizzy Charley Grimm dip for the next 19 years until Frank L. Chance, the Peerless Leader, ar- rived on the scene in 1906 to win four pennants in five years against his famous rival, John J. McGraw. McGraw won 10 of New York's 15 pennants, but even his aggressive leadership was not quite enough to catch up with the Cubs. Outside of the Cubs and Giants, of the 69 pennants already delivered, Boston has 9, St. Louis 8, Pittsburgh 6, Brooklyn 5 and Philadelphia lays claim to her one and only flag which Alexander's pitching brought about 130 years ago. It has been stated, unofficially, that the Phillies will not win the pennant this season. But we have an idea that under her new owner there will be a change for the better later on. Grimm's Victories Returning to the leading Cubs and Chicago's long pennant suc- cess, it was Charley Grimm who won for Chicago in 1932 and 1935, using a number of pretty good ball play- ers for this purpose. Now the cheerful Cub leader has a shot at his third flag, a dream that only the Cardinals can turn into a nightmare. And I don't believe they can with the edge in pitching the Cubs carry. In los- ing such bali players as the Cooper brothers, Stan Musial and Max Lan- ier, fron'~ last season's squad, the Red Birds apparently have lost more than they could ~fford. In spite of these heavy blows, Billy Southworth has turned in one of his best jobs, a statement to which the Dodgers can testify. Southworth's best chance is the 12 games his Cardinals have left with the Cubs. There may be a wide gap between the Cubs of 1945 and the 1906-1910 teams. That Chance outfit was one of the greatest baseball has ever known. It had one of the game's smartest catchers iu Johnny Kling. It had a strong pitching staff headed by Miner Brown and Ed Reulbach. And it had "Tinker to Evers to Chance," plus Steinfeldt at Uflrd. It also had such workmen as Scheckard, Hofman, ~ Slagle and Schulte in the outfield. This club was good enough to set a National league record for a season's total -- 116 vic- tories. This 1945 round-up is no 1906 brand. But it is a pretty good ball club for these war years. Above all else it has the most consistent pitching staff in either league. When Charley Grimm calls on a starting pitcher, the odds are he will have one who can finish or at least pitch well. Two Best Basemen In Hack at third and Cavarretta at first the Cubs have two of the best now left from either league. ~tan Hack has been a badly under- rated ball player for several years. He has been one of the best, pre- war or through the war. Phil Cav- arretta has been one of the most improved players of 1945. A good outfield headed by Bill Nicholson has given Grimm a solid phalanx com- pared to so many other teams who have had few dependable workmen. After a straggling start, the Giants and the Dodgers out in front, the Cubs hit their stride in early June and have had no bad spots since. Through June and July they had ev- erything it takes against the opposi- tion offered, which wasn't any too hot. But above all, in Passeau, Wyse, Derringer and others they had better pitching than any other club in their league could show. As the two leagues arc ?~clay, any- thing can still happen with several weeks of play left. But there are only the Cardinals to threaten the Cubs, and outside of Washington's Senators I can't see any other American league team threatening anybody. Whatever happens, the Clark Grif- fith -- Ossie Bluege delegation lounging in the shadow of the Wash- ington monument have been the surprise team of the year. They have proved again what pretty good pitching can do for any pen- nant cause. J