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September 27, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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September 27, 1945
 

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F / I VOL XXVII MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY. NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, September 27, 1945 ~ I I IIII, III IIII I,I I,IIIII LY IS RELIGION . WEEKLY NEWS ANA S -----1, ''""" a . . It ourses tmattenge I , I D ,d I I l Vt/ I cla l rs Traditional American separation i oun,HjaHanese--ar--ea. .-rs;i of church from state was the issue ~,~ T^ h, I ^ I ~ I /. ~[ I~" r~.'.~ o I Mrs. Vashti McCullom of Cham- Iilnll /IIU/II I%%111~. I Hf~f, %lf.ttTtltor 3nOWS DIO UID" I '~aign, Ill raised against the Cham- =~s~.g =v ,h,e "/ .=w v - . ':',t c^. IBritish See/< I'tnaenCotat : :publi:sch /olsinthoo::- rut nation ru.titue Released by Wes.ern Newspap r Un -----~- mu " y. Who o |nJons nre expressed ! these eolumns, they are those Of . ~" ~ ~WE~tleTOltNSewNOTa~e:r Unlon't newt .alret. us not arlly ot th, sp e With both Mrs. McCull.om and the r- : us boara prepares to appeal to me ~u- rear ~troIlg neat;tlOll ggalil [ IWllltary press court in event of their loss of the decision, the suit promises to affect similar instruction in 1,856 communities in 46 states. North Da- kota and New Hampshire are the only states without such religious courses. In bringing her suit as the inter- ested party, Mrs. McCullom stated that as the only pupil in his class not enrolled in the voluntary 30 min- ute per week instruction in the Prot- estant, Catholic and Jewish faiths, her 10-year'old son Terry had suf- fered acute embarrassment. As a result, she said, indirect pressure had been brought to bear against the youngster to take the course, regard- less of his inclination, on public school property maintained by tax- payers" funds. In countering Mrs. McCullom's charge, the school board pointed out With Britain seeking extensive America.n .financial assist ance.consu~ that the courses were outside of the under way at state-- - t,departmem wnn ~ae,:ngeconum,v :d='l;;:t:a;:r~'Tor~l I school curricula and purely volun- tatlons get (from left to right) Leo Crowley, ~ore gn Halifax, British ambassador; ~'iUlam Clayton, assistant secretary of state; i tary, with the representatives of all of the principal religious denomina- Lord Keynes, British economist, and Henry A. Wallace, secretary of corn- tions conducting and financing the merce. JAPAN: Round Up V/ar Lords With high Japanese war leaders taking their own lives as the Ameri- can net grauuauy began to tighten around them, the Nipponese govern- meat of Premier Higashi - Kuni as- sumed the responsi- llfdeki ToJo bility for rounding tip suspected war criminals in an ef- fort to head off a mass suicide wave, Japan's No I war lord through- out most of the P~cii~ conflict be- fore enemy reverses forced his re- tirement, ex-Premier Hideki ToJo led off the suicide wave by attempt- ing to take his life as American troops arrived at his country resi- dence outside Tokyo to arrest him. Though Tojo misfired, former war minister~ and army chief Sugkvama used better aim to kill himself' and ex-welfare minister Koizumi also succeeded in taking his life. Having first professed full respon- sibility for the war before trying to shoot himself, Tojo shut up tighter than a clam following an improve- meat in bls condition under the wateh eye of Amebean Refusing to talk on his slcE-oea. the ashen 61-year-old former Japa- nese kingpin declared that he would not answer questions without docu. mentary reference. . . Meanwhile, capital clrcias re- vealedthat ToJo and other sus- pectadJapanese war crimin,~ Nnz" " Representatives of the U. S Brit- am, Russia and China will comprise the tribunal, which probably will sit in Tokyo and, as in the case of its European counterpart, try foreign government leaders on the unprece- dented charges of conducting wars of aggression In addition to trial on the novel count of carrying on aggressive warfare, Japanese will be tried for such crimes as racial 15ersecution, torture of" helpless people, and mur- der of captured military personnel. Though not questioning the goal of br/nging Nazi and Japanese over- lords to justice, many eminent American lawyers have opposed the procedure for trial, declaring that it establishes a precedent for kangaroo courts which might be used against Allied personages in the future. SLAUGHTER: Hogs Down Though slaughter of cattle and sheep dulling the first eight months of 1945 hit new tops for federally- inspected plants, butchering of hogs dropped off severely, resulting in a continued tight meat situation. Only with an improved hog situation in- creasing the overall supply of meat did marketing experts look forward to an end of rationing, With August slaughter at an eight year low, the eight month hog pro. duction totalled ~6.821.667. away be- low the 50,352,226 mark for the same period last year. During the early part of September, hogs qon- tinued to trickle into leading mar- kets, with shipments commanding ceiling prices. Partly offsetting decreased hog slaughter were record butcherings of cattle and sheep for the first eight months of the year, with 9,071,406 cattle killed and 13,960,~4 sheep. At 4,152,779, the calf total was the sec- ond largest on record. FOREIGN AFFAIRS: British 'Ask "Aid In th~ U. S. to sell this country on the feasibility of offering financial assistance to Britain, Ambassador Halifax and Economist Keynes de- clared that a prosperous Britain, getting its great exporting and im- porting machinery going at full blast, would help assure the stabil- instruction. Aside from the state constitution and statutes involved, federal inter- vention hinged on the first amend- ment to the U. S. Constitution, which provides: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free ex- ercise thereof" . . . and/section 1 of the 14th amendment to the Con- stitution declaring . . "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges ity so necessary for postwar peace, or immunities of the citizens of the Should Britain fail to secure suf- United States; nor shah any state fieient aid to rebuild its industry and , ~ deprive any person of life, liberty, obtain raw materials for processmg i or property without due process of into finished goods, Messrs. Halifax ' law, nor deny to any person within and Keynes pointed out, the whole its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." Mother of three boy~ and wife of University of Illinois professor, 32- year-old Mrs. McCullom said that while she realized the suit might harm young Terry, her deep con- viction on separation of eburch from state inspired her action. Though the senate finance committee worked out a broad postwar unemployment bemefit bill, the solons turned down Pres. Harry S. Truman's recom. mendatlon that jobless com- pensation be tamed to a maxi- mum of $25 per week. Instead, the committee bent to the task of shaping a measure wMeh would authoress the fed- eral government to contribute funds toward extending the time of state unemployment payments from $15 for 14 Wsel~ in Ari. zona to $28 for 30 weeks in Con- nectieuL Both federal end maritime workers would be made eligible for unemployment compensa- tions under the proposed bill, at the rate existent in the state of their employment. In addition, workers who mi- grated to war production cen- ters would be allowed up to $200 for transportation expenses back to their old residences or new job locations. Money would not be advanced for the ship- ment of any household effects however. intricate system of exchange among nations would be affected, leading to social disturbances the:world over and another outgrowth of isms. Thus, in approaching the U. S. pn a basis of mntual concern, the British came over as pros- ileal statesmen snd net as beg- glU~. Further, they disclaimed uy Intention d seeking an e~y way out by negotiating entered bearing loans, bnt rather stated that they were opposed to anY type of debt of n burdensome m~u-e which, like World War i obligatious, would have to be eventually repudiated. In shying from the idea of an in- erest - bearing loan, the British left the way open for an otltrlght gran~ which would be strongly buei~ea here, or a long-range interest-free advance. Shape Italian Treaty While the British talked dol~ra in Washington. D. C the Big Five count foreqn" tinued discdsslons in London con- cerning the future pblitieal and ter. ritorial makeup of postwar ~;urope, with the diplomatists occupied with drawing up an Italian peace treaty. Foremost of the problems associ- ated with an Italian treaty was the disposition of the country's North Afrtcan colonies, with the British' reportedly frowning on. the :A-'~nel~ can propostfion tor permltung Italians to retain their territories under a United Nations trostecship. As the eternal ~ockeying for protective bem~dartes and rich interacts cropped up, the BHt- ish were said to favor Italian retention of only western Lib~ while taking for themselves eastern Libya covering Egypt and Italian SomaUiand fronting the gateway to the vital ~ sea leuding to the Suez carat. At the same time, the French re- purtedly sought a slice of north- western Libya from Italy to strengthen their own Tunisian holding. But if the disposition of Italian colo- nies posed a big problem, so did the readjustment of Italy's European borders, with France out for a re- adjustment of the Alpine boundary and Yugoslavia hot for annexation of the strategic Istrian peninsula with its rich port of Trieste. As the meeting progt'essed, the Big Five were said to have considered a com- promise under which Italy would re- llnquish the peninsula jutting into the Adriatic sea but retain Trieste Itself. With U. S: and British pressure for free and open elections in Ro- mania and Bulgaria already having forced the communists' hands in those countries, Yugoslav and Greek rightists next came to the fore at the foreign ministers' conference to request intervention in the political affairs of those Balkan states to assure a fair and peacehfl democratic representation. STRIKES: Hit Radio Heading up a wave of strikes, leaving over 100.000 workers Idle, was the walkout of engineers of the National and American Broadcast. ing companies partly paralyzing ra- din programs and forcing e~ecutive technicians to take over operation of the controls. Though the strike ostensibly was over wage demands, informed in. dustry sources said the walkout was a fiareup of 'a dispute between the independent engineers' union and Jimmy Petrillo's American Feder- ation of Musiotans, ANT aver which of the two should represent the em- ployees who turn the records for transcribed broadcasts. While the war labor board or- dered the radio companies to deal with the engineers over the record changers, the AFM's jurisdiction over the so-called "'platter Jockeys" has been recognized in Chicago, Washington, New York and Detroit. Because the big chains feared Pe. trillo might call his musicians out on strike if they dealt with the en- gineers over the record changers, it was charged, they have been stall. ing on the negotiations. Service Even as Occupation Needs Point Up Requirement for Large Army. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, 1616 Eye Street NW, Washington, D. C. One of the administration's hottest political potatoes is a matter that nobody likes to talk about--even the opposition. It is military service. Not universal military service next month or next year but any old kind of military service today and tomor- row, right up to election day, 1948. The problem has many facets but it has one, awesome nub -- the vet- eran vote. There are several danger signals which the Democratic ad- ministration is watching with some trepidation: the criticism over con- tinuation of the draft which the President has given his complete and unqualified support; recurring complaints of discontented soldiers and their families appearing in ra- dio, congressional, national commit- tee and other Washington fan mail. which add up to a resounding de- mand for more and quicker dis- charges, and flnally, a growing fear that the feeling Which used to be called isolationism is cropping up in a new form---"anti-militarism." The administration doesn't dare make any move to permit a drastic reduction in the armed forces now. Military experts think it will be the middle of October before any such move can be contemplated. By that time they think the danger of ~ny serious outbreak in Japan will ~e over. or there will be evidence that one is coming. Await Jap Reaction To Occupation The full Impact of the occupation of Japan will not be felt until American soldiers are deep In the heart of the country. Before ~bat, the rea*ction of the Japanese people and the inflhence of the military leaders as opposed to the influence of the emperor,~ eaunot be gauged. Suffice it to say that the surrender teFjns as well as the surrender lt- se~ came as a shock to the Japa- nese people. Many Americans fall to realize that a relatively small American army landed in Japan in an area in which there were no Japanese except those permitted to be there by the authorities wbo'arranged the surrender. There was no e~utact with the general population or the military. Scattered over the rest of the country is ~ powerful Japanese army, as yet fully armed, in defense posdtions, strengthened, when the Japs completely reorganized their home defense against invasion after the capture of Oklnawa. Dis- regarding the thousands of Jap- anesa sailors now on shore, the air force, the supply troops and others, it ia known that on Hokkaido there were two full divisions. (A Jap divi- sion is between 15,000 and 20,000 men.) On Henshu there were 44 divlsions and 7 brigades (a brigade is roughl~ half a dlvislon). On Kyu- shu 14 divisions and 7 brigades. It Is estimated that we would have 500,000 men in the islands by the middle of September. That is against a Japanese army (not count- ing the sailors, airmen and others) of well over a million. That is why there can be no sharp reduction in American troops until we know what. if anything, Is cooking under the cherry trees. And then when that question Is answered we have the question of occupation. It has been estimated that to police Germany, Japan and Korea and perhaps parts of China will take 1,200,000 men. Where will they come from? Where will 300,000 come from for that matter? Already a sharp re- version against military service has begun and if it follows the curve after the last war recruitment on a basis of voluntary enlistment is bopeless. At its low point the army after World War I numbered 130,- 000 men. I well recall the story of one of my officer friends whose regi- ment, stationed in the middle west. dropped ~o low that men themselves voted to spend their post exchange furp:ls for a recruiting campaign. With a band and a company he paraded the countryside for a week. He got Just three recruits and two of those were rejected as physically unfit. As one dfficer remarked bitterly to me: "How are you going to get a man to Join the army for $~l'a month (the basic peacetime pay) when Uncle Sam will pay him $25 a week for not working at all?" (He referred to the unemployment com- pensation called for in pending [egi~ lation.) That's the position the administra- tion is in when the cry to end the draft arises. Vets" Attitude Bears Watching The complaints from the veterans is another matter. They are not so much concerned over who gets into the army as who gets out. A lot of them are marking time right now. later a lot will be sent overseas in the boresome jobs of policemen. Why shouldn't I get out now and get a start in business? Why shouldn't my husband come back and support me in the manner to which I have been unaccustomed since he joined up? Why shouldn't my boy get back to school where he belongs? Why shouldn't my sweetheart be allowed to come home and marry me like he said he would? And some day sonny and daddy and lover will come back. And they'll Join a veteran's organization and they will vote at the polls; ah, there's the rub! Now we come to the third point which is really the most insidious, the one which has to be handled the most delicately. We may have learned in this country that an ocean Is no longer a barrier against the enemy. But we know there Is another barrier which separates our maritime states from the heartland of the nation bordering the Missis slpp~ flood plain, That part of the reentry forgot its so-called .isola- tionism and threw its whole heart into the war. But the war is over -- on paper anyhow. It is time to put the hand back to the plough again, There is need of stout arms and strong backs tn the fields, and though Japs and the Germans may require watching, why not let George do It? That ~ a natural feeKng and clever politieans would have-little troubl~ in turning it to account, b~ ralsing~he cry of militarism, of int, pertalism and ell the other isms which men whoee barns are their castles and whose meadows aro their empires, dislike. Such a Nnd. men~ could be turned against ate admen/strut/on as well as another but it so happens that the mid- die west is naturally somewhat R~ publican in its leanings normalI~ and the Democrats are now in rite saddle. One very keen political observer wbo has watched the way of the voter for many years said to me the other day: "If there were a Preslo dentine election tomorrow Truman would win it." And when you con- sider the matter coldly there are good reasons for the statement. The Republicans have had one healthy issue after another knocked out from under them. Truman has giv- ers business its head, he has sat ~n the OPA, he has released one con- trol after another, he has most soli- citously deferred to congress, he is on the way to break up the war agencies and get the business of government back into the old line departments. Such is the picture as of today--- all clear except for one little cloud in the sky, not much bigger than a serviceman's hand, but there is thunder and lightning in that cloud a~d if the circumstances were such that its bolts of wrath were directed at the administration it would not even take, say a Stassen, to win the Presidential race on a walk. n By next February--barring tmex- parted developments--all soldiers in Europe except those in the army of occupation and the minimum re- quired to dispose of the army's sur- plus property will have been re- turned to the United States. MaJ. Gen. C. P. Gross, chief of transpor. ration, said in an announcement by the war department. Return of American forces in the Pacific will be completed next June, according to present estimates. More than 1.750.000 men are schedo uled for return from the Pacific theaters, while approximately 2,000 000 remain to be returned from Eu- rope. Some 150,000 other troops also are to be returned from other overseas theaters. 'r NO. 17. III I ARMY CRACKDOWN The army is determined that re- turned European war veterans shaU no longer appeal to congressmen or newspaper men to hasten their dis- charge from the army or to protest redeployment to Japan for police duty. Severe secret orders have Just been issued to this effect over the signature of Brig. Gem A. M. Gur- hey, chief of staff for Lt. Gen. Lloyd R. Fredendall, commander of the 2nd army. The order, which ban been secretly circulated, reads: "Recently members of a division in the United States scheduled for redeployment to the Pacific area ap- pealed to the press and radio pro- testing against transfer of the divi- sion to the Pacific theater Action of this nature, if concerted, may subject participants to dis= eiplinary action "Incidents such as noted in para- graph 3 above (the paragraph just quoted)," continued the secret or- der, "will be dealt with drastically by this headquarters and the com- mander concerned will be sum- marily relieved." The division referred to prob- ably was the 95th, stationed at Camp Shelby, Miss which sent all sorts of appeals to newspaper men and radio commentators against being transferred from Europe to Japan. Apparently the protests worked, for the or- der to send the 95th to Japan was rescinded. @ PRESIDENTIAL POKER Those who traveled with Presl- dent Truman on his various trips to Washington state and Potsdam found him a delightful and en- tertaining companion. One story they tell about Trurnan's trip to the northwest was regarding his salmOn, fishing off the Washington coast. While the motor boat was chug- ging back to shore, Truman and his old senatorial friends, Gov, Mon Wallgren and Sen. Warren Mag- nuson of Washington, played poker. The stakes were low, but ~e thrifty Truman was trying hard to come out ahead. It was agreed that, no matter who was ahead, the game would stop the minute the boat hit shore. So the President kept up a ltne ot banter to the Norwegian skipper. "Slow her down, Christie" he said, "re behind. I need a Utt4 e extra time to catch up. Or again, it was: "Spoed her up,~ Christianeen, I'm ahead now. L6t'8, get to go em catchy, up.' Finally, the motor boat touched, shere with the PreMdent of the: United States a few cents ahead. Skipper Christlaneen was Just as, pleased as Truman. @ ARMY AND RAILROAI~ Even the army's friends o~ Cap/t~ hill say the brass hats are killing any chance for public port they might have had by their autocratic disregard for elvilia~ needs in such fields as coal mining, ateelmaking and railroading. One of the busiest railroads In the country today Is the Southern Paei~ ie, which has handled most of the east-west traffic to the b(tsy port of San Francisco. The S P. ia a single- track line able to carry its huge volume only by scheduliug trains at 10-minute intervals round the clock. In order to maintain this schedule. it requires a huge crew of crack trainmen, repair men and other skill~ad workers. It has done pretty well even in the last year, although there was a recent bottleneck near El Paso which resulted in the hold- ing up of 75 trains. Southern Pacific officials have been begging the army to release skilled railroad men with the 80 points required for discharge, or to furlough railroad men in this country with less points. Finally in mid-summer the army agreed to release 4,000 railroad men. with 2,400 of them assigned to the S. P. But then the army be- gala going back on its promise and said it could discharge only 1,300 men. A few weeks ago. the army released 230 men to the Southern Pacific and said no more were available. The jq~er is that 24,000 men have gone into the armed forces from~ the S. P. employment roster. Finally, War Mobfllser 8syder stepped in and fereod the army to rnlesse 4,0eO reUrend men. amidst loud squawks ~rom brmm ~uts tlmt this aetna would de- stroy morale.