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November 8, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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November 8, 1945

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/ q [] [] VOL. XXVII. m--zg~ ,i i MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, November 8, 1945 NO. 22. WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS Congress Fashions 51/2 Billion Dollar Tax Reduction/or 1946; Ponder Postwar Army Training Rele~secl bY Wesfern NewsvnvPr Union EDITuIt'S NOTE: When opinions are expressed In these columns, they are those o| Westlbrn Newspaper Union's news analysts and Dot oeeeesarUv of this newspaper.) With freedom of speech assured under Allied orders, former Japanese political prisoner addresses gathering in Tokyo. Under proposed liberal- ized constitution, all Nipponese elements would be afforded opportunity for recognition in nation's governmental councils. TAXES : Good News Though the senate and house had yet to compromise their differ- ences, John Q. Public could look forward to substantial Teduetions in income taxes in 1946, and Ameri- can business was assured generous relief for the immediate postwar period. No less than 2 billion dollars was expected to be lopped off of in- dividual income taxes as a result of provisions for permitting $500 ex- emptions for dependents before pay- ment of the normal 3 per cent levy and the scaling down of surtax rates. Close to another 3 billion dol- lars was scheduled to be pared from corporation income taxes through substantial reduction or total elimi- nation of the excess profts assess- ment; repeal of the declared value excess profits and capital stock levies, and graduated decrease in surtax rates on companies with less than $60,000 net return. In addition to income tax reduc- tions, the use tax on automobile and boats was expected to be dropped. Solons were divided on the question of wartime luxury levies, however, with the house for cutting present rates to prewar levels July 1 and the senate against the action, With reserves well over 6 billion dollars, both houses were unani- mous in freezing present social se- curity payroll taxes at 1 per cent on employee and employer alike and forestalling an automatic increase to 2 per cent apiece January 1. Under the tax relief bill drawn up by the senate, G.I.s would not be required to pay taxes on'service compensation during the war years, and officers would be permitted to spread tax liabilities over a three year.period interest free. LABOR: Setting Pattern With both Henry Ford II and United Automobile Workers' leaders expressing confidence in settlement of a wage adjustment at the com- pany, government officials held high hopes that an agreement might re- sult in the establishment of a post- war pay pattern-and clear the way for speedy reconversion. Government optimism was a wel- come note in the dreary labor pic- ture, pointed up by the deadlock in negotiations between the UAW and General Motors over the CIO union's demands for a 30 per cent wage increase to maintain wartime "take.home" pay and the corpora- tion's resistance to the demands because of possible effects on prices. Setting the pattern for other CIO unions, the UAW deo~ared that Gen- eral Motors was well able to ,dip into alleged huge wartime profits to carry over any losses accruing horn higher wages until future pro- ducZion reached big volume levels. Reflecting industrial sentiment for its own part, General Motors denied exorbitant wartime earnings and de- clared any withdrawal from reserves would crimp expansion plans. As the companies and unions clashed.~ Tthe ~ administration worked on a reconversion wage policy de- signed to guide negotiations through the troublesome days ahead. Strong- ly influenced by labor, the govern. merit repOrtedly favored substantial wage boosts to maintain wartime "take-home" pay wldle freezing prices at prewar levels, except in hardship cases. Giving both capital and labor its say in the formulation of a reconver. sion pay program, the government moved slowly in the establishment of policy. Hopes ran high that the forthcoming management-labor par- ley would result in the voluntary creation of machinery for settlement of important disputes. MILITARY TRAINING: 4wait Response Having received President Trn- man's recommendation for one year of postwar military training for American youth 17 to 20, co.gross adopted a cautious attitude on the question, with one ear perked for popular reaction and the other for military argument. Personal congressional~response to the President's request varied, with Senator Revercomb (Rep W. Vs.) declaring " . . . I am open minded --I want to hear both sides of this. . . " while Representative Celler (Des N. Y.) exclaimed " . . We President Truman asks congress for military training for youth. want no truck with compulsory mil- itary conscription " Meanwhile, it was estimated that about 975,000 youth would he called up for training each year under the President's program, with 250,000 rejected for physical or mental de- ficiencies. Because of weather con- siderations, the largest number of camps undoubtedly would be lo- cated in the south, with regular army officers and non-commissioned officers in charge. Fewer" r()utine tasks, such as kitchen police, would be in stqre for reservists, military sources said. JAPAN: Reform Imminent Her military machine smashed, Japan's highly developed economic monopolies, designed for foreign as well as domestic exploitation, also faced imminent dissolution as part of the Allied program to strip Nippon of l~er war.making potential and democratize the country. The losers figured to be the five great financial-industrial families of Japan, which, as the dominant ci- vilian powers, had exercised strong pressure on the nation*s foreign poli- cies. Backed both politically and financially by the government, the big five, known as the "zaibatsu," were heavy investors in overseas development, By smashing the "zaibatsu," the AIH,es planned to loosen their grip over Japanese politics and permit more liberal and democratic ele- ments to exert influence over gov- ernment direction. At the same time. destruction of the great com- bines ,promised freer opportunity for economic development in the coun- try. As steps were taken for the dis- solution of the "zaibatsu," the politi- cal transformation of Japan slowly gained ground with new parties in the development stage and more lib, era l political institutions impending in the rewriting of the national con- sUtution. AGRICULTURE: Global Pact First permanent body of the United Nations, the Food and Agri- culture organization (FAn) came into existence in the grand bail- room of the Chateau Frontenac in Quebec, Canada, with 30 nations for- mally signing its constitution. Though possessing no executive pewees over member nations, FAn Sounder Education Needed To Maintain Free World seeks, through voluntary Inter- Economics and Geography Among Studies change of information and effort, to improve agricultural production. raise nutritional standards and bet- ter the living eonditious of rural pop- ulations. Indicative of the big Job FAn has on its hands, two-thirds of the world's population is estimated to be ill-fed, with many facing peri- odic starvation. Signatories to the FAn constitu- tion include Australia. Belgium. Canada, China, Denmark, Dominz- can Republic. Egypt, France, GreeCe, Guatemala, Haiti, Hon- duras, Iceland, India, Iraq, Liberia, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia, Mex- ico, Netherlands, New Zealand. Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Peru, Union of South Africa, Philippines, England, United States and Vene- zuela. FRANCE : Left Swing With their fundamental platforms at variance, France's three great political parties -- the Commu- nists, Socialists and Popular Repub- lican movement -- prepared for the establishment of a new constitu- tion as demanded in the recent elec- tion. As the three major parties and a smattering of smaller organizations moved to write a new political char- ter for the country, the Popular Re- publican movement, backed by General De Gaulle, loomed as a counterweight between the Commu- nists and Socialists. Known as a Catholic Liberal party, and led by Foreign Minister JJidault, the PRM's at/rprising demonst~'ation of strength in the elections was in- dicaflve of the quick defense thrown up by moderate elements against the threat of extreme radicalism. The new alignment found France's political picture charac- teristically mixed, with the Social- ists Joined with the PRM4or a west- ern bloc of European nations against Communist opposition; the Communists committed to a swift program of nationalization of indus- tries: the Socialists favoring more study of such an undertaking and the PRM for a moderate course. FIRE RAIDS : U. S. Vulnerable Back from a tour of war-wracked Europe. Anthony J. Mullaney, chief fire marshal of Chicago, Ill and a noted authority on fires, declared that investigations showed that no great city could withstand concen. trated explosive and incendiary raids and domination of the skies overhead was the only assurance of safety. In making his disclosure, Mul- laney cited the obliteration of Ham- burg, Germany, where all walls were of brick, numerous firebreaks existed, no skyscrapers reared up and an efficient fire department op- erated. In a contrast indicative of the vulnerability of American cities, Mullaney cited localities dotted with frame buildings, wood lathe and plaster eonstructioh, tall buildings, and few empty spaces for allowing a sweeping fire to peter out. In burning out Hamburg, Mul- laney said, great squads of Allied bombers first dropped explosives to rip up structures, with incendiaries then being loosed upon the open wreckage. Towering flames licked up the oxygen to create a vacuum into which air from surrounding areas then rushed in. creating fierce "fire storms." With instruments re- cording temperatures of 1,400 de- grees F over 40,000 persons were said to have died from the fiarqes, heat inhalation or asphyxiation. NAVY: Speed Rele es Required to Ground Students in the Problems at Home and Abroad. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator, WNU Service, 1616 Eye Street, N.W Washington, D. C. {This Is the first of two articles on the subject of the "new reconver- sion.") In the last two months the public has learned a lot about the impor- tance of industrial reconversion. For many more months, business men, with the help of the best technical advice they could obtain, have been preparing to shift from wartime to peacetime production. Government has shared the knowledge of its ex- perts and proffered its co-operation. Labor has contributed its sugges- tions. All three know what they want. Together they hope to obtain a successful synthesis. But what many people do not real- ize is that the nation, the whole world, for that matter, is facing an- other reconversion problem, equally as difficult to solve, equally as im- portant to achieve. It is the recon- version of our whole educational sys- tem, and upon its success depends the political future of democracy and its economic future as well, as embodied in the theory and out- working of free enterprise. It is no exaggeration to say that our current educational system, which along with our wartime in- dustrlal system made Allied victory possible, is no more adapted to meet the new and startling problems of the postwar world than the Japanese defense could meet the atomic omb. Enlightened educators everytwhere realize this. In a short time experts will meet in London to work out a program outlined in San Francisco by the men and women who planned the educational and cultural coun- cil of the United Nations. Here at home and in other democratic coun- tries, domestic edueaUonal policies are being reshaped to meet the new conditions. Edueation for world freedom is an important objective; education for freedom in the land of the free Is equally important, for it is the foun- dation stone of world democracy. We have the task of reconverting our own antiquated machinery so that it will be geared to produee and maintain freedom. The United Nations' task is to build new ma- chinery which will evolve a prod- uct which must displace the Naz/- Fascist teachings which still have their hold on a large segment of the population. Our own product must be both a weapon of offense and of defense. We have a powerful exatnple in the need for this in the demonstrat- ed strength of the Nazi ideology and the weakness of what we have so far produced to combat it. Nazi Propaganda Remains StronR A report made public only a week or two ago reveals how "Naziism at its blackest." as the report describes it, is being kept alive, in a series of "resistance clubs" in Germany scat- tered from the North sea to the Ba- varian mountains. Allied investiga- tors have pieced together an appal- ling picture of a widespread activity based upon race hatred, and other Nazi principles with which the Ger- man youth has been so thoroughly indoctrinated in a manner pointed out in these columns some time ago and which I then said must be dealt with eventually. The offense is'powerful, and the weakness of our defense is illustrat- ed in recent dispatches te~ng us how Nazi propaganda is ai~ectingthe viewpoint of the American army of occupation. A major is reported as doubting the truth of the atrocity stories in the concentration camp of Dachau located only a few miles from where he was stationed. Amer- icqfn soldiers are heard parroting the familiar Goebbels' fabrication that Germany was forced into the war; that Hitler had his faults but was really great in many respects, or if Hitler's glory is found to be too strong a goat he is used as a scape. goatto excuse German war guilt. I have Just come from a long talk with one of America's great educa- tors, John Studebaker, United States Commissioner of Education. It was he who Introduced me to the phrase, "the new reconversion." "Our democratic system Is threat- ened from within and without." he said to me earnestly. '~'he Amer. With nearly 300,000 enlisted men and officers already released since V-J Day; the navy planned for the demobilization of an additional 800,- 000 by the first of next year throdgh a reduction in discharge scores. Following establishm~nt Of lower acores November 1, the navy~c0n- templated an even further cut De- cember 1, with male ~t~cers' point requirements pared to 44; enlisted male personnel to 39; WAVE ofl~- cers to 30, and enlisted WAVE per- sonnel 24. In cutting its discharge scores, the navy left Its-point computation unaltered, with one.half point for each year of age; one.half Point for each full month of service; 10 points for dependents regardieu of num- ber, and one-fourth point for each month of service outside of the U.S Since September 1, 19~. ican school gave our polyglot nation the solidarity to carry on the war successfully. But," he added, "we have severe tests ahead. We must educate for freedom, and educate for existence in a newly integrated world of which we are an integral part. We must understand our own problem and the problems of oth- ers." I couldn't help applying this the- ory to the stories from Germany. A thorough understanding of democ- racy is proof against Nazi propagan- da. An understanding of other peo- ples and events beyond our borders which affect us--as the rise of Hitler and Mussolini affected us---would make us deaf to German prevarica- tions and excuses. In order to meet the threats against democracy from within and from without. Mr. Studebaker be- lieves, with most of his colleagues, that our present educational system will have to be thoroughly renovat- ed. "Both the plant and the product must be remodeled," he says. He chose two subjects---geography and economics--as examples of bow the product must be altered. Knowledge of Conditio Vital Geography is important because it Is a study of the world in which we live. It is a study o~ the peoples who live in the world--of our very near, thanks to Jet propulsion and atomic energy, if not alway8 very dear neighbors. Geography is also the study of the pursuits, the indus. tries of the people of the world, Its ' grasp is essential ff we are to bring intelligent thought to Judgr~ent 0f events and the conditions at home and abroad and their effect upon each other and upon us. "And yet, geography was never taught to our people," Mr. Studebak- er says. "We stop teaching it at the eighth grade. The younger ehildreff, from three to eight, are taught by teachers who themselves never had more than eighth grade instruction in the subject." And his second example of one of our educational products which must be strengthened, economics, "belongs still less to the people." Only 5 per cent of the high school pupils ever studied economics, he in- formed me, and only 5 per cent of these ever learned anything about international trade. "How can we possibly meet the problems arising now if we do not understand this subject? How can we possibly maintain free enterprise if we cannot pass a considered judg- ment on the questions that the pa- pers are full of every day? How can a person say whether a wage in- crease is fair if he has never studied the simplest theories of supply and demand, or the more complicated relations of wages, costs, profits?" And in the international field, he PRESIDENT IN MISSOURI WASHINGTON.---The next two months of President Truman's life are filled wi~ Junkets similar to that which he has just taken through the heart of the Mark Twain country. At first, newsmen covering the White House figured that he took these trips for political reasons, but they have now changed their minds. The Presides takes these junkets because he loves them. Never since that fateful April day when he took the oath of office has he had more fun than at Caruthersville, Me where he swapped yarns with the local postmaster, got up at 6:15 ~o "spit" in the Mississippi river, and ran out in the street to ring the bell of a small-scale locomotive. The locomotive was being conduct- ed through the streets of Caruthers- ville by the "Forty and Eight" club of the American Legion (commemo- rating the "40 men--8 horses" ca- pacity of French freight cars in the last war). Suddenly the President of the United States spied it. Per- haps it reminded him of 1918 when he unloaded artillery horses frdm those same French freight cars in the Meuse sector. Anyway, with a shout to War Mobilizer John Snyder, who once worked behind the casMer'u cage of small-town Missouri-Ar- kansas banks, Harry went over to the locomotive. Right then and there the wur mobilizer and the President of the United States had the time of their lives sta~z~ u locomotive bell-pulling contest. 'SECRET SERVICE FROWNS Another incident the secret service men didn't like was when the Presi- dent arose shortly after 6 a. m left the austere frame 42-room Majestic hotel which had been cleared of guests in his honor, and walked down to the MisSissippi river. It seems that there is an old custom in those parts which makes it incum- bent upon a visitor to spit in the Fa- ther of Waters. The secret service men, not being in the know regarding this spitting custom, were taken by surprise. One of them, however, spotted the truant President of the United Stated am- bling off in the direction of the river. sounded the alarm, and a few min- utes later, four bodyguards were trailing him. After Harry got through spitting, he skimmed a few stones out over the river, found that his technique as a stone-skimmer hadn't changed since boyhood days, and was then content to go back to town. On the way, he met two old Ca- ruthersville cronies, Nearl Helm. county wholesale liquor dealer, and James Reeves, former commander of the American Legion. They swapped stories as they walked down to the post office, where they dropped in to see Postmaster Bailey S. Brooks. There they swapped some more. BOMBS FOR CONGRESS Six members of a congressional committee sailing to Europe last August were nearly scared out of their wits while on theIQueen Mary. Headed by Rep. Louis Rabaut of Michigan, a subcommittee of the house appropriations committee had continued, how could a person who debated whether to fly or to go by had never learned the fundamentals boat. Finally they decided to sail-- of international trade know whether but they wished they hadn't. a tariff was justified, whether a car. tel was dangerous, whether certain foreign business activities benefitted the people as a whole, whether free competition or government subsidy was a better policy? How could they advise their congressman to vote on the Bretton Woods agree. sent. or the policy of foreign loans? Just as geography su~ffers because its teaching ends before maturity is reached (maturity in this sense is the 1~-16 year group, roughly high school age), economics is begun too late. It is offered as a one-year, high school course and boiled down into such a concentrated potion that not only are vital elements omitted (such as international trade) but it becomes a dry and highly abstruse subject. Furthermore, since it is often an elective (a subject rll touch on in a later article), it may be omit. ted entirely because it Is "hard." These two subjects are only two examples of those which should, in Mr. Studebaker's opinion, make up a solid "core" of education avail. able to all. '~rhls core," he says, "is essential if we are to build solidarity In a demoeratle soeiety. A certain group of vital; basle aubJects whieh will help us understand the problems that threaten democracy, the down. to-earth facts necessary to give us the basis for a Sound faith In our way of life." The group which decided to enjoy some relaxation on steamer chairs included Dean Gillespie of Colorado. Robert Jones of Ohio, Butler Hare of South Carolina, Thomas O'Brien of Illinois and Judge John Kerr of North Carolina. Kerr had argued for the boat trip and finally con. vinced his colleagues. The congressmen were Just begin- ning to relax on their first night out from New York when an army of. ricer came to Chairman Rabaut with a disturbing message. '~ he skipper thought you gentle- men ought to know," he said, "that we have just received a code rues. sage from the FBL They report they have discovered thera are a number of incendiary b~ombs on the boat scheduled to go off at midnight. "There are severe] companies of Japanese . American troops on board." the officer told Rabaut, "and Japan is still at war Witli the United States." Rabaut called his colleagues to- gether and tom them-the news. Judge Kerr's fir~enmmemt was: "[ wonder if the skipper has ordered, airplanes to hover around the chip,'~ All were alerted the entire night while the ship'8 crew searched fro- successfully for the bombs. No trace of them was ever found, but the rest. relaxation the coagrenmen had hoped for was not achieved until they net foot on sol/d ground once again.