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November 29, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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November 29, 1945
 

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/ VOL. XXVII. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, November 29, 1945 NO. 26. WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS U. S. Code Interceptions Bared Jap War Plans; Attlee Outlines Labor Party Economic Program Released by Western Newspaper Union. EDITOR'S NOTE: When opinions arc expressed in these columns, they are those of Western Newspaper Union's news analysts And not necessarily of this newspaper.) As joint U. S.-British commission youth pgrade in Jerusalem in protest into Holy Land. studies Palestine problem, Jewish against restriction of immigration PEARL HARBOR: Code Secrets As the Pearl Harbor investigation got underway at Washington, D. C before a joint 10-man congres- sional committee, intercepted mes- sages placed in the records dis- closed that U. S. intelligence offi- cers had cracked the secret Japa- nese code a year before the start of the war. While the early intercepted mes- sages dealt with ship movements, chief interest centered in the diplo- mat/c documents dating from July 2. 1941, when Tokyo told Berlin that Japan would work for its "greater East Asia co-prosperity sphere" re- gardless of the world situation. On November 22. Tokyo advised Nomura and Kurusu, Jap envoys negotiating in Washington with Sec- retary of State Hull, that it had been decided to set November 29 as the final date for effecting an agree- menk afar which things would "automatically . . happen" in case of failure. Then on November 26, Nomura told Tokyo of Hull's uitl-I mature and the improbability of reaching a settlement. On November 30. Tokyo informed Berlin of the imminence of war with the U. S. and later relayed the same message to Rome. Meanwhile, Tokyo warned its consulates on De. cember 3 to be on guard for the "winds" messages in short wave ra- dig broadcast8 indicating rupture of relations with the Allies. "The "east wind. rain" message (meaning war with the U. S.) then came through on December 5. Among the last messages decoded "were Tokyo's reply to Hull's ultima- turn on December 6, with final in- structions for presentation to the U. S. at I p. m. the following day coming in on the morning of De- cember T. Dated December ?, a Jap message from Budapest, Hungary, to Tokyo stated that the American minister to that country had pre. sented its government with a corn. munique from the British that a state of war would break out on the seventl~ BIG TALK: Reassures U. S. In the nation's capital to discuss disposition of the horrific atom bomb and touchy international questions, British Prime Minister Attlee also found time to address congress and outline the democratic objectives of hi8 labor party just as negotiations for a multi-billion dollar loan from the U. S~ were materializing. Aimed at helping Britain get its export - /aport trade functioning again a~l lighten the load of six bil- lion dol~ars of debts to wartime cred. itora, 1~e projected multl.billioo dol- lar advance was attacked in some circles ~- am aid to the lobor party in. soe~ the United Kingdom. In 8d~kesa~g con~. Attiee de- ~lm, ed ~st Brikish bustnt~H~ were be nat/gnat/zeal wheo into liee detrb m t l I o econon . No rmP al in speech or appear- aaee, tim ~ m/~t-ma|mered, mamtaebod B~itleb leader des~ibed thn. lab~.-.~ as a reprmemtative cres#.~ of liberal Engiist~ so- elety, with Drofession~l and bu~dne~ m~m. and even aristnczata. Joining witi. the working eiaeses in its mem- bership. In determining tq retain the se~'et of the know-how of harnessing the atom. President Truman and Attlee declared that until effective sate- guard8 were set up against its de- structive,use, no advantage would come from sharing its use. To work out such safeguards permitting ex- change of vital information on atom- ic energy for industrial purposes, th~ Big Two recommended the crea- tion of a United Nations commis- sion. As revealed by Foreign Minister Bevin in the house of commons re- cently, Britain has expressed deep concern over Russian demands for trusteeship of Eritrea and Tripoli- tania in the Near East, and estab- lishment of a naval base in the Dodecanese islands, inasmuch as these territories lie athwart the famed "life-line" of the empire through the Mediterranean and Suez canal. Coincident with Attiee's visit to Washington was the U. S. and Brit- ish announcement that a joint com- mission of the two countries would undertake a study of the ticklish Jewish immigration question with a view toward easing the p!ight of European refugees. Pressing importance ~ the sue was emplmst~ed by (mntin- ned Arsb and Jew/sh rle4s in the Nenr East, with scores killed and wounded in widespread demonstraflone over the ques- Men of making Palestine s m~ t~onal homeland for the He- brews. Because they have been banded into a league 33 million strong spread over the entire Near East, with control over rich oil depoa/ts cherished by U. S. and British con- cerns, the Arabs have greatly com- plicated settlement of the Palestine issue i~ view ot ~r, stubbO~:~l~: sition to large-scale Jewish immi- gration. Taking the Arab objections into consideration, the joint U. S. and British commission will look into the question of whether heavy ira- migration would upset the Arabs' pol/tical and economic position in Palestine. Consideration also was to be given to providing remedial action in Europe itself and allow- ing immigration to other countries, JAPAN : Seek Trade As the question of reconstituting the Japanese economy arose. Nip- ponese officials drew a pattern for the nation's future trade relations with the world by recommending a barter system to facilitate immedi- ate imports of needed foodstuffs and raw materials. Under terms of sur- render, Japan will not be permitted to produce some of the items for- merly exported. Under the Ja]~anese proposal for the resmnption of trade. N1ppoa would receive substantial amotmts of food. salt, cotton, copra, coati, ore and son.ferrous metals, ia eg- change for gold, diamoed~, silk, eot- t~ goods, chemical p oducts, med- ical supplies, macltinery, Im.KIware, and t~. The ~c/~tem of rec~reat/ng I~e Jalmnese ecmmmy wa~ po~led ~/p vehttlou that the bed been the s/xth b/ggest prewae eJcpm~ er. ship0ing out almost a bl~ dollars worth of goods eada year. O~ the total amount, China obtek~ed the he.Zest part,-with r~ ~. S, ~d India foliowi~. Of the total amoo~ ~ eb- mined 27.2 per cent; the U, S 18.Z per ee~t; India, 6.2 per cent; Great Br/tain, 3.7 per cent; Latin America. $ per cent; Australia. ~- per cent, and Germany 0.7 per cent. Other European and As/atie countries took 2.1 and 3.1 per cent of the re- mainder of exports respect/vel~. FOOD: Europe's Need As congress wrangled over appro- priation of $550,000,000 to complete th~ original government pledge of $1,350,000,000 to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation adminis- tration, and President Truman asked for another $1,350,000,000 for the agency, UNRRA officials abroad estimated that liberated European countries would need 9,000,000 tons of foodstuffs this winter to avoid starvation and serious malnutrition. Because of interrup~ons in farm- ing caused by the war and drouth, European agriculture will be able to furnish metropolitan districts with food assuring a daily intake of only 1,200 calories, UNRRA said. Though receipt of 9,000,000 tons of food would boost this figure to 2,000 calories, the diet still would fall be- low standard nutritional require. ments. Investigations in Czechoslovakia, Greece, Italy, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, Yugoslavia and Norway revealed that there was a pressing need for feed to help rebuild the cattle and dairy industries, serious- ly depleted by butchering of con- quering armies and the diversion of grainsto human consumption. Having already shipped 2,400 cows to southern and eastern Europe, UNRRA plans additional substantial monthly deliveries through the win- ter. Meanwhile, American grain mar- kets boomed upon the prospect of heavy demand in the comingmonths, with cash and December rye a sen-, sational leader on the Chicago Board of Trade. Cash rye held a substantial mar- t gin over cash wheat, what with dis- tillers scrambling for the grain in view of a shortage of corn and sor- ghum, while the December future soared to almost $1.90 a bushel, top- ping December wheat for the first time since 1921. Another bullish factor In the mar- ket was an estimated drop of 267,- 000.000 bushels in the 1944 r~e crop in Europe where the grain is an im- portant bread staple, and smaller supplies in both the U. S. and Can- ada. Because of the slowness in deliv- ery of grain to coastal ports, many Attitud, Against Postwar Servi, Sways Congress Public Joins Influential Organizations in Objections to Training; Need for Interim Security Force Argued. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, 1616 Eye Street, N.W. Washington, D. C. In the days that followed Presi- dent Truman's message to congress urging universal military training we, in Washington. waited to see if there would be an echo to the Presi- dent's words spoken so earnestly but with so little effect on the audience before him. There was an echo all right but it was an emphatic rumble of negation. I wasn't surprised---I read my listeners' letters. It w~ts interesting to see the way the me/hbers of congress reacted to the President's message as he de- livered it. I watched them with one eye on the text of his speech as I stood squeezed into the crowd in the gallery of the house. Varied Reaction To Proposal Here are some of the sentences which I checked as bringing re- sponse: " . . . above all else, we are strong because of the courage and vigor and skill of a liberty.loving people who are determined that this nation shah remain forever free." (Applause). Well. that was a gen- eral, non-compromising sentiment. Nothing to do with the subject in hand, There was the statement that wa didn't lack faith in the United Na- tions organization, "on the contrary with all we have. we intend to back our obligations and commitments experts feared exports in the early under the United Nations charter." half of 1946 might fall below ex- (Mild applause, this time.) pectations. Railroads clamped onThen came the response to the emergency demurrage charges In an effort to speed up unloading of box cars to ease the situation. To d~e qu~ion o] what makes Ells. word, (",~n~/') ~ise~ttrver, 16, so it. resu~ble ~o women older than him, Mr Eleanor D sm/, 24. who f ur l in his latest romet~ic interlude, mused: "Dream ma~--ldul comport/on--Per. fee~ /o~er." Mother el two chiidren amf wqe o[ an army corporal s~'vin8 in Japan, Mrs. De~env ~lot~d v~th Sonny" toUowin# Mrs. Deveny and "Sonny." mee is$ az the home ot a mumd tr/~d. Two years ago, Mrs. Elaine Mon[redi, 22, and also the mother o[ w~o children, rm o~ with young Wi~e. ~r in his fffst amorouA ep~de. In ebrbora~in~ on "SonarS" attribates, Mrs. Deveny asserted: "I'd like to take care ot him the rest el my Ills He's good, considerate and older than his years." She teould not return to her first direct appeal for the measure in hand. The President hid: '"the surest way to guarantee that no na~ t/on will attack us is to r~mnin strong in the only kind of strength an aggressor can understand--milL. tary power." Applause again but I had the feeling It was for the senti- merit, and not the suggested means of implementing it. When he said that "the basic reason for m/l/tory training'' is tO guarantee safety and freedom from an aggressor, there was another demonstration, but not quite as ener- getic and many members, I noted, refrained from any applause at all. The last note is the most em- phatic. "Good applause" followed the Prealdent's affirmatlun that "un- til we are assured that our peace machinery is functioning adequately. we must relentlessly preserve our superiority on land and sea and In the air." But that lJ Just what the congress is not willing to do because it believes the country is not willing to have them do it. I am sure of that because I know they have been receiving, as I have, far more let. tars against military training than In favor of it. Must Serf Public Prolrram Today, a man who keeps his fin- sere ~1 the pulse Of congress as- sures me that there will never ha'a universal military training act until a great deal more "selling" has been done by those who believe in it, than has~ been attempted so far. This man. like the writer, is a convert to the cause, so his expres- sion was the reverse of wishful thinking. Both of us. though mem- bers of the American Legion, never favored their program for universal service urged upon congress, be- ginning shortly after the last war. "there is too much organized op- position." my friend said, "such powerftd Influences as ~ federal ommcil of churches, some influenUal members of the Catholle e~ virtually all of labor so far (and this tneludo= the CIO a~! the ArL whidn glum mdllfy meh other's at. ~wr~s) the colleges and the unorga~ ~ whiek might be ~l~d 8dmply 'the mother.' " Where do the returned ve4tm~m stand? It is too ear to sa~. If t~ follow in their fathers' footstel~ th~ will eventually vote foe prejmred- neu. It is the tendetmy of men.who have seen ~viee. to pla~ a higti value ~ thorough preliminary training. But they will n~t beeome cecal until they oin the ranks of World War I veteran orgardgatier~ or build others of their There 18, however, another ~n.ee which may change the picture .-- a change in the international Xt-~,o which wilt inject the element of hgsband, mid. CHINA: Friendly Enemies Once deadly enemies, Chinese na- tionalists and Japanese troops have become brothers in arms. in north. ern China. where Nipponese forces have been employed by the central government for the protection of vi- tel territory and railroads against communiat attack. While the Japanese actively aided the nationalists in their drive to se. eure a foothold in the north, U. S. marines kept their distance in the bloody strife between Chiaag Kai- shek's troops and the Reds, being ordered eml~. to .girard *AmerlCim lives am:l properW in ~he battle zone. Meanwhile, tie nationalists pressed their advantage with lend-lease suP- plies ot~inal~ destined foe use against the Japanese. Though fighting raged ~hr~gh~at the whole northern area, attontio~ was riveted on national/st attempts to smash into the industrial province of Manchuria, which the commu- nists reportedly planned to convert into a military stronghold. Early fighting centered around Shanhaik- wan, gateway city to Manchuria lying at the eastern end of the Grea~ WaIL fear into the people's attitude and since fear starts the adrenalin flow- ing that usually means action. Meanwhile, there are those who feel that complete preparedness not only is essential in the interim, even though a future world security or- ganization is moving swiftly to fruition, but that it will also act as a stimulus toward such a goal The argument runs briefly: We must prepare to enforce peace, or prepare to fight a war. Many mem- bers of congress realize this and would undoubtedly support the President's program if they felt they could do so without flying in the face of the majority opinion of their constituents. I do not intend to use this column as a platform upon which to debate the issue now but I would like Io present a viewpoint expressed by a medical man which made considerable impression on the comparatively few Washington- ians who heard him address a re- cent meeting in the capitol The speaker was Dr. G. B. Chisholm, one of the world's foremost psy- chiatrists, who served as chief medi- cal officer of the Canadian army and is now deputy health minister of Canada. "Maturity' Needed For Peace His thesis Is that "this is a sick world, with an old. chronic but eve~'- more e~tensive and serious sick- hess. Its sickness h~s recently be- come acutely dangerous and the fu- ture is uncertain indeed." It is a sickness which has made us "the kind of people" who fight major wars every 15 or 20 years. The cure is education. Just as in- divlduals become neurot/e because they are not mature, and thus aTe unable to cope with the situations they must meet, so the world has developed a behaviour pattern which produces something which no. body wants: war. We must have enough people who can show tolerance, be patient, and above all have the ability to ~om. promise. These are qualitlas of ma- turity, Dr. ChishoL-n points out, and people, matdre in ' this sense. would not want to start were and would prevent otheT peo~e from starting them. But the doctor realizes that edu. cation will not produce such matur. ity in o~e generation. But such a state must be realized or we faee one of two alternatives. Either we nnast become a race of trained killers, or a race of slaves. Until we can achieve education sufficient to avoid such horrible fates, 'Tor so 10ng as it may take to change the bringing up of chil. dren enough in this world, o~r close watch on each and everyone in the world should not be relaxed for a moment." The first step in eradieat. ing war is an attainable stopgap, Dr. Chisholm believes. Security must be achieved and the valid fear of aggression eliminated. This means legislation backed by ii~nme- diately available combined force prepared to suppress ruthlessly any appeal to force by any peoples of the world. The administratio~ of such a force is a delicate problem but it ean be devised if and when the great power really wants it. The second 8tap would be to pro. vide the opportunity for all peoples to live on economic levels wh/eh do not vary too widely, either geo- graphieal~y or by groups wi~n a POl~latio~. This means a redistrfo~ tion of material. This is lXmsible ince thece are enough res~ in the world to go aro~. It is impo~Ible ha this space ts d~ iu~t/~e in Dr. Chisholm's views b~ me, pohtts are these: be fen ttutt m~t b~s developed o~ eoa~lst. eut patteen of behavlotw wh/eh c~mas him to tnd~tl~ ha um~t- war at frequent h,tervak; ~ go- tag to Jmmatat F: that immaturity elm ~ be et~e~ by educetiot~ beffm~dng ~t td~tdhcoel au accent on ~ "sotmees st Mv4ng~; that until we aehi~ ma- turity we must unite ru~hle~ t~ oupprees the effort on t~ 9az~ of any nat/on or anyome in a~ sat/ca to start a war. Psychiatrists may not agree ~e problem of world peace but it is 8a~e to say that immature laymea, either, Meanwhile, what mtmt decide k how dry wants to keep our TIRE RATIONING If you are an automobile owner in search of tires, here is one thing to keep your eye on. The tire industry is piffling a|l sorts of wires back- stage to lift export restrictions. At present they are permitted to export 400,000 truck tires and I00,000 passenger tires during the last quar- ter of this year. They would like to export a lot more. In the first place, they don't have to worry about OPA ceiling prices when selling abroad. Secondly, they can build up their )ostwar markets by getting in on the ground floor. So they would rather sell more tires abroad. But if they do, they sell less tires at home. And today a tire certificate issued to a person desiring to buy a tire is nothing more than a bunting license. He can go out and hunt for a tire. If he's lucky enough to find one, his certifi- cate entitles him to buy it. DEPARTMENT OF PEACE When the house foreign affairs committee heard testimony on the Randolph bill to create a department of peace, the star witness was a 64- year-old former mule-driver from Morgantown, W. Vs. Chairman Sol Bloom and mem- bers of his committee listened with rapt attention as Raymond M. Davis read a 16-page statement on why the United States should take the lead in establishing a new cabinet post to spread the gospel of peace throughout the world. After he finished, white-thatched GOP Rep. Charles Eaton of New Jer- sey declared: "Mr. Davis. you my be un- schooled, as you teU the eom- mlttoe, but yon certainly are not uneducated, TImt is one of the 0nest documents I have ever listened to." World Peace is not Just a hobby with the West Virginia coal man, though he describes it as such. It is m burning ideal. A self-made bus/- nees man who now operates two coal mines employing more than 500 workers, Davis had made many speeches at his own expense throughout the country urging a gov- erm~ent department of peace. He also has written a proposed constit~ ties for the United Nations that has attracted wide attention. The state.department ~ou~t well enough of his ideas to invl~ F~ the San Francisco co~fference es an observer. Rep. Jennings Randolph of West Virginia, freely admits that Davis wal the chlet spark plug behind his peace resolution. "When I was looking at the rear and of a mule an day in West Vir- ginia coal mines," says Davis. "I n~or thought that o~e day rd be instrumental in having such an im- portant piecb-of legislation intro- duced in congress." No~--The ascend infUal el D~- vie' name steads far "Me=ca." Perhnpe what we need are mere phtin, gardeD-varlety Moses' ot the Davis type, instead of striped-pants dlploms~ts, to lesd u8 out of the intormsthmsJ wil- derness. U BOWLE8 HOLDS INFLATION FLOOD OPAdministrator Chester Bowie= is one of the meet abused men in Washington. Every6ne Is badgering him. Congressmen demand ~et their constituents increase the price of this or that. Farm groups want to raise the price of milk or cattle. Business groups want to abolish atl ceiling prices. Probably the common man doesn't appreciate it, but here are some things which will happen if Chester Bowles loses his battle to stop the inflation flood: 1. Every person putting his money in life insurance does so with the idea of getting hl~ money baek--l~ cents un the dollar. But ff there is inflation, the Immmnce dollar will be worth 75 cents. 50 cents, or even cents. 2. Every pereon on a retired pea- slon. whet~r a reflrnad employee, a college, a sohoo~ or a b/g empto ce, see iaceme shrink if t~re is inflati~m, $. Every widow living m left by her hm~and w~l see that il~ come shrivel It very school teacher Imm at mcusty heviq move up when the value of Ibe d~l- far moves down. 5. Every ~ivi5 Nrvut, ~m4hm" working for city,-state ~ fedm, el government, wtU~be in ~ same boat as the teachers. e. Every college endowment, every charity or other enterprise with fixed invested capital stands ready have i~ investment evaporate inflatioa.