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December 6, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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December 6, 1945
 

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/ [] [] I VOL. XXVII. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, December 6, 1945 NO. 2'/. ,WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS. IAuto Industry .Faces Tzeup In ]CIO Demand [or Pay Increase; ]Trace Nazi.Moves [or Conquestt Lean and sober, Hermann Goering (left), Rudolph Hess leenter) and ioachim Von Ribbentrop go on trial for war crimes at Nuernberg, Ger- many. STRIKE : Showdown The CIO's demands for a 30 per cent postwar wage increase to maintain high wartime "take-home" pay came to a showdown when 175,000 members of the United Auto- mobile Workers struck against Gen- era] Motors corporation, No. 1 pro- ducer in the industry. With labor's biggest union locked against the nation's greatest operat- ing company, observers looked for a long-dra~m battle between the two participants, with federal concilia- tor John W. Gibson expecting a set- tlement by January 15 or probably before. Against G.M.'s huge re- sources, the UAW reported posses- sion of a $4.000.000 strike fund, with rumors that the union was prepar- ing four a winter-long siege. Though original UAW plans called for a walkout only at G.M. plants under a new strategy which would hit at one company at a time and permit free operation of ~eir com- petitors, the reliance of all other manufacturers except Ford upon G.M. for parts threatened to cripple the whole industry when supplies ran out or new sources could not be found. Meantime,'UAW held ne- gotiations with Chrysler and Ford over the pay issue. UAW's decision to strike at G.M. followed the collapse of bargaining between the two parties, during which the union turned down the company's offer for a I0 per cent raise predicated upon the possibil- ity of price increases for new cars. Under new OPA regulations, costs of new G.M. vehicles will be about 2 per cent below prewar figures. Countering the UAW's demand for a 30 per cent wage increase, G.M. declared that production w0rkets are earning from $1.12 to $1.15 per hour, with the over-all plant average at $1.18 per hour. If UAW demands were met, the union asserts, the pro- duction wage would be boosted to $1.16 per hour, with an over-all aver- age of $1.53 per hour. As the strike began, G.M, con- tinued to pay its "/3.500 office and administrative personnel. WAR CRIMES: Trace Nazi Rise Declaring that high Nazis' own written records would furnish suf- ficient evidence to condemn them, U. S. Prosecutor Robert H. Jackson developed the first count in the Al- lied case against the 20 surviving members of Hitler's hierarchy, charging that the party's seizure of control in Germany constituted the first step in its plan of world con- quest. Addressing the four-power U. S British, Russian and French court, Jackson declared: "We will not ask you to Convict these men on the tes- timony of their foes. There is no count in the indictment that cannot be proved by books and l~ecords. . . These defendants had their share of the Teutonic passion for thoroughness in putting things on paper." In tracing the evolution of the Nazi rise in Germany. the U. S. projecution recounted the notorious blood purge of 1934 reportedly insti- gated by Reich Marshal Goering to crush opposition within the party; the elimination of all political groups and confinement Of opponents in concentration camps; the gradual suppression of labor unions with the fndustrialistk" connivance, and finally the control of business tt~eif. The trial got underway as the AI. lied court turned down the defense attorneys' protest against the valid- ity of the proceedings. Asking that an impartial opinion concerning the legality of the court be solicited from authorities on international law, the Nazi counsel asserted that the U. S. had always insisted that in cases of, international arbitration or jurisdiction, the bench be tilled by neutrals or representatives of the interested countries. Most aggressive of the defend- ants. Goering was gavelled down as the trial opened and he attempted to deny the authority of the court, as- serting that he was responsible only to the German people. PEARL HARBOR: Star "Witness One of the star witnesses at the early congressmnal hearings in the Pearl Harbor catastrophe, big, bluff Adm. James O. Richardson, who commanded the U. S. navy up to February, 1941, revealed that the late President Roosevelt favored the anchorage of the Pacific fleet at Ha- waii over his objections in the hope of restraining further gap aggres- sion. "I stated that in my opinion the presence of the fleet in Hawaii might influence a civilian political government," Richardson said, "but that Japan had a military govern- ment which knew that the fleet was Senator Barkley (left) greets Admiral Richardson at Pearl Harbor probe. undermanned, unprepared for war, and had no . . supply force . . . without which it could not under- take active operations " Listing his objections to stationing the fleet at Pearl Harbor, Richard- son said there would be difficulty transporting supplies to the base; the site lacked security; operations were handicapped by problems of entry, berthing and departure of large ships; surface and air space was congested and restricted, and full demobilization could only be ac- complished on the west coast. Relating a conversation with Mr. Roosevelt, Richardson said that the President told him that though he doubted that the U: S. would enter the war if the Japanese attacked Thailand, the Dutch East Indies, Malaya or even the Philippines, he expected that sooner or later they would mal~e a fatal mistake open- ing hostilities. In October, 1941, Richardson said, Secretary of the Navy Knox sum- moned him to an important confer- once at which he outlined President Roosevelt's plan for a shipping blockade of the Japanese in case they reacted to the reopening of the Burma road supply llne to China. According to Rlchard~mn, the opera- tion called for posting a cordon Of U. S. warsh/ps from Hawaii to the Philippines and thence from Samoa h~ the Dutch East Indies. Since the Japs took no belligerent action. however, the plan was dropped. PEACE,PATTERN: Bishops Report Following closely upon their qual- ified endorsation of compulsory peacetime training, the Catholic hierarchy of the U. S. called for the realistic adjustment of fundamental differences between the democ- racies and Russia through recogni- tion of fair play so that an atomic World War III might be avoided. Demanding a realization of the ideals for which AmeriCans fought in World War II, the bishops depldred the trend of European affairs fol- lowing the Moscow conference of 1943, claiming Russia since had adopted an independent course on many matters and sought to impose its domination over helpless neigh- boring states. Besides calling upon the U. S. to provide full support for overseas re- lief. the bishops also assailed mass vengeance upon the defeated na- tions, large-scale transfer of popu- lations, systematized use of slave labor and cruel treatment of pris- oners of war. AIR ACCIDENTS: Dangerous Trend In offering civilian aviation inter- ests the full co-operation of the army air forces for promoting safer operations, Col. George C. Price, chief of the office of flying safety for the AAF, predicted a heavy future accident toll unless current trends were reversed. Declaring that civil air accidents since V-J Day to October 31 were 70 per cent greater than.in the same period last year, Price said that with 300,000 planes in the air in the next five years there might be 48,000 serious crashes and 5.000 fatalities annually in the early 1950s. Though flying mishaps in the army took 26,000 lives and destroyed 22.000 planes during the war, the ac- cident rate was lower than it had been during peacetime, Price averred. Army safety experience would be gladly offered to civilian agencies to minimize flying hazards, he said. Increase Production Agriculture, manufacturing and public utilities redueed manpow- er by 50 per cent per unit of product during the 40-year period ending i~ 1939, the National Bu- reau of Economic Research re- vealed after a comprehensive study. During the same time, total output of all Industry was increased by 200 per cent, with only 75 per cent more workers employed. In declaring that the figures did not indicate the real decline, the bureau said that they failed to reflect the improvement in the quality of the product. AMERICAN LEGION: Take Stand Ending its 27th annual convention in Chicago, Ill with all of the char- acteristic hi-jinks, the American Legion took its stand on the leading controversial national questions of the day, demanding: One year of compulsory military training for all youths, with ade- quate basic training and either ad- vanced technical or scientific in- struction, when qualified, or further schooling in ROTC units. Retention of the secret of the atom bomb and the establishment of a civilian, board fbr scientific re- search in military material. Financial assistance to friendly foreign countries not imposing trade restrictions and then for construc- tive purposes only. Unification of the army, navy and air forces into a single com- mand. Following election of former Gov. John Stelle of Illinois as national commander, the Legion honored two World War II vats as vice-command- ers. Fred LaBoon of Chickasha, Okla and Dudley Swim of Twin Falls1 Idaho. MASS TRANSFER: Move Germans Because of agitation within the countries governing their areas of residence, millieme of Germans will be shifted to the" amputated reich this winter despite a lack of fuel and rolling stock needed to trans- port them. In all, some 8,000,000 Germans are to be moved from Poland, Czecho- slovakia, Austria and Hungary by next summer, with the U. S. c~cu- pation zone receiving 3,200,000; ~e Russian. 2,750,000; the British, 1.500,000, and the French, 150.000. Disposition of another 6,000,000 Ger- mans from East Prussia and other former sections of the reiCh has yet to be determined. Allied determination to resettle millions of Germans in midwinter followed previous denunciations ot forced mass migration from many quarters, Winston Church. ll for one, rising in commons tO protest against suCh acti because of the,= eernen- dous dispossession of propertY', prb vation and suffering involved. UNRRA Test of Sentiment For World Co-Operation Faith in Ideal Necessary to Continue Work Of Allied Relief Agency After Reports Of Early Difficulties. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, 1616 Eye Street, N.W, Washington, D. C. The forces in Washington battling for world co-operation are finding the going tough. It is hard to get people to have faith in collective security when they witness such things as the breakdown of the for- eign ministers' conference in London, Russia's reluctance to co-operate in the Far East advisory commissmn. Argentina's espousal of the ways of the dictators. At times it seems as though, internationally speaking, de- mocracy were approaching the win- ter of its sorest discontent. It is unfortunate that in the midst of this period of suspicion and anxi- ety, a yes and no vote has to be taken on a "matter that may mean life or death, and to that extent peace or anarchy, to hundreds of thousands of people in Europe. I refer to the 500 million dollar appro- priation for UNRRA which has been winding a precarious way through congress. By the time these lines appear, that appropriation which congress previously authorized may have been granted. There has never been much doubt as to its final approval. But the danger lies in the effect of proposed reservations. This appropriation bill is con- sidered a bell-wether. If it goes through unencumbered, it may mean that other measures affecting our relations with other nations are fairly safe and that such isolation- ism as ,exists in the country (and, therefore, in congress) is less than one-third of the whole. It is true that there have been loud and emphatic ~lJernands that such knowledge as we possess con- cerning the atom and its potentiality be kept strictly to ourselves even though scientists say/ it cannot be less than common knowledge---even the "know-how" to turn it to mili- tary or commercial use -- within a few years. But I believe that if you will submit to careful analysis the expressed sentiment of congress on this subject, it would reveal a line-up which takes little consider- ation of any international aspects of the use of atomic energy. In other words, the viewpoints so far ex- pressed have differed as to whether this new force has been looked at as something to sell at home. and the question has been whether it be produced under state control or by private enterprise. The question of internationalizing the bomb has re. mained in the domain of theory. A look at the arguments for and against UNRRA and the reaction to them gives us a much clearer pic- ture of tendencies, isolationist or otherwise, of the arguer. U. S. Support Is Vital When a congressman casts his vote "aye" or "no" on the bill to appropriate the money for UNRRA he is not simply virtually voting aye or no on whether we help feed starv- ing Europe. If he votes no and the noes have it. there will be no UNRRA: True. all contributing na- tions put in the same proportion of their national income -- 1 per cent --but it so happens that 1 per cent of the national income of the United States is nearly three-quarters of the entire sum contributed. Your voter knows this. And he can't help realizing the UNRRA is symbolic of American participation in any world organization. Without this country's advice, consent ,and support, no world brganization can exist. And lil~ewise, with American supFort no nation can afford not to go along. Another thing that the congression- al voter knows when he votes on UNRRA is that it is far from per- fect. He knows that the personnel, the efficiency, the standing of the or- ganization have improved tremen- dously in the las~ few months since it has been able to get the person- nel it required, which it couldn't get before because of the manpower and brainpower shortage due to the war. But he knows it is still hampered by its polyglot nature and he has to have faith enough in its purpose to make him feel that the risk of fail- ure is worth taking. Because UNRRA, like any international or- ganization, is everybody's baby, it can ea~. beC0me nobody's baby. Each nation has been only too ready to criticize it. always excluding their own representatives' functions, of course. UNRRA has suffered great- ly from a poor press because the task it faced was well nigh impossi- ble in wartime. The had news. therefore, overbal- anced the good news as far as re- ports of progress on the part of the active, contributing countries were concerned. From the passive, recipi- ent countries naturally there were plenty of complaints. These "sins of omission" were ballyhooed. The other side of the story was not. It was the sad and familiar tale of priorities, a story many a business man can tell. Even when UNRRA had money in hand for food re- quired (although some of the con- tributing members are very slow to pay, the United States still owes a little less than half of its allot- ment and authorization), it was im- possible to get the combined food board, which decided who got what, to allot any to UNRRA until the armed forces, the domestic market. the lend-lease, and the liberated countries who had money to buy, got theirs. And even if the food was available, frequently there were no ships in which to transport it. That situation has changed. Food is now being delivered to Europe. By Christmas it will be moving at the rate of half a million tons a 1 '11 ~ EISENHOWER---DEMOCRAT OR REPUBLICAN WASHINGTON. -- When Admiral Dewey returned triumphant from capturing the Philippines in the Spanish-American war, newsmen asked the conquering hero whether he was a Democrat or a Republi- can. The admiral wasn't quite sure which. That ended the Dewey boom for President. Today, Gem Dwight Eisenhower may be put in the same position as Admiral Dewey. Both parties are considering new blood for 1948. GOP leaders are convinced that, given a candidate who can win labor votes yet not alienate the Hoover conserv- atives, they can win. Obviously, Eisenhower is important presidential timber. Popular impression is that Eisen- hower is a Republican. He was ap- pointed to West Point from the rock- ribbed Republican state of Kansas by GOP Senator Joseph P. Bristow. And nobody in those days could get anywhere in Kansas unless he was a Republic an. However. though it may be news to GOP leaders, Dwight Eisenhower put himself on record early in life as a Democrat. Furthermore, he was an energetic William Jennings Bryan Democrat, and in November, 1909, made a speech at the annual Democratic banquet held in Abilene, Kan. The other speakers were older and seasoned Kansas Demo- crats; but Dwight Eisenhower, then only 19, was picked to stand up with them and harangue the crowd.He did. IKE'S OLD FRIEND I am indebted for this information to J. W. Howe, now of Emporia, KmL month. But the memory of past de-!Howe not only published ~ At~,~ ficiencies lingers and doubt as toi lene News, but was a membet~ future performance could easily be t~sed as an excuse to defeat the measure unless one is really c~n- vinced that UNRRA's job is so ~m- portant it must succeed. And there we get down to the hUb of the whole argument. For to agree with the thesis that UNRRA's objective is de- sirable is to agree that the good of one is the good of all and the good of the other fellow is the good of the us--"us" standing for the United States. It is easy to show that millions In Europe will starve this winter unless they get food from outside their own borders. It is easy to prove that in those countries which are UNRRA'a concern -- the ones which were in. vaded and which cannot pay for food -- starvation will lead to dis- ease, riots, revolt--and death. And we know that under such conditions, nations turn to tota,litarianism and when that fails, to chaos. We also know that unless we help tide these people over. we cannot expect to sell them our surpluses because "you can't do business with a gra'veyard." Nevertheless the isola- tionist would respond, what of it? Let's stay in our own backyard. Therefore, the voter, weighing UNRRA's past errors with its fu- ture potentialities, will vote for it only if he still believes that world co-operation is something worth tak- ing a risk for. So UNRRA becomes a test of how well this belief is standing the test of misunderstandings and disap- pointments on the diplomatic front which we have faced in the past weeks. We' hear a great deal about the difficulty of understanding the Japa- nese mind and many people have their fears as to how we are going to get along in the years ahead dur- ing which we will occupy the coun- try and attempt a reconversion of Japanese thinking as well as eco- nomic life. Recently I had a long conversa- tion with an officer who had inter- viewed some of the more intelli- gent Japanese officers captured in the Philippines just before the sur- render. Several remarks of one of these men illustrated the difficulty of reaching the enemy mlnd~ My friend asked the prisoner: "What did you think of our propa- ganda?" "It made us laugh." the Jap re- plied. "Be specific+" my friend said. "Well, you sent us leaflets saying, 'Surrender; come over to our lines and receive Plenty of hot food and cold water.' We laughed at that. We had plenty of cold w;tter in the mountain& What we wanted was hot Water." Water, to a Sap, meant in this ease a bath. They bathe in very hot water. That was what they wanted and couldn't get. To the Americans --water means, after the heat of battle, first, a drink. school board and knew Dwight better than anyone his own family. The Abitene News office quarters for a group of high boys who came there to their problems, talk sports tics, read the papers jobs for the paper. J.W. of Elsenhower: "Dwight liked to read the e~- change newspapers from out of town. He never complained about working, seeming to take that for granted. In school dis- cussions, he was always for the under-dog and contended we needed a somewhat better df~ tributioa of weafth." William Jennings Bryan at that time had made many speeches in Abilene and the young folks liked to hear him. In fact, Bryan made some definite i~roads on the Repub- licans. The Republican party et that time was beginning to be split into two groups, led by Taft and Teddy Roosevelt. The fight in Abi- lena was bitter, and this was the situation when Dwight Eisenhower started out in 1909 to get the proper endorsements to enter West Point. DWIGHT GOT TO WEST POINT The Eisenhower family had no political pull -- on the contrary, Dwight's father was listed as a Democrat, though he took little part in politics. Dwight himself was more active than his father, but whatever pull he had was with the Democrats. However, the fee- " tional Republican fight helped him. Editor Howe, the town's chief Demo- cratic leader, advised Dwight to o go get the endorsement of Phil W. Heath. editor of the Abilene Chron- icle and s p o k e s m a n for the "Square-Deal" Republicans; also to get the endorsement of Charles M. Harger, editor of the Abilene Re- flector, Sl~Okesman for the "Stand- Pat" Republicans. Since young Eisenhower was not allied with either faction, Heath and Harger were very friendly, and gladly gave him their support. Thus, he was able to obtain not only the endorsement of the Democrats, but of both Republican factions---a real compliment to his standing in the community. Eisenhower's first and only ven- ture into politics occurred while he was taking postgraduate work at the Abilene high school, preparatory to West Point. Chief speaker at the Democratic banquet was George H. Hodges, later governor of Kar~a~. Dwight's subject was "The Student in Politics." Two themes ran through speech of the 19-year-old future commander of the Allied armies in Europe--preparedness and helping the under-dog. According to the Abilene News: ,~ro say that he handled him~el~ nicely would be Imtttnz it mildly. ~ts speech was well received." A few months later, Ik'e Eis~m,~ hower wu in We t one is supposed to ~ either a 'Demo- crat or a Republican.