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December 20, 1945     The Billings County Pioneer
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VOL. XXVII. MEDORA, BILLINGS COUNTY, NORTH DAKOTA Thursday, December 20, 1945 NO. 29. I I i WEEKLY NEWS ANALYSIS. Resume Wage Talks After Truman Bid for Anti-Strike Legislation; Prize St eerflrmgso loO Per Lb. U. S. DIPLOMACY: Charges Double.Dealing In one of the most boisterous con- gressional hearings of recent years, wily. silver-haired Maj. Gen. Pat- rick Hurley ripped into the state department career men for their el- leged interference with his efforts ~o unify China and establish it as a base for far eastern political stabil- ity. Alternately calm and heated, Hur- ley, recently resigned as ambassa- dor to Chungking, told the sen- ate foreign relations committee that during his discussions with Chinese communists he concluded that cer- tain state department officials had convinced the Reds that his policy for unifying the country under Chiang Kai-shek would be scrapped. Instead, the officials were said to have declared that the U. S. would seek to stabilize Asia with a con- trolled Japanese empire. In hitting at the career men, Hur- ley charged that they sided with im- perialist Great Britain, France and the Netherlands for keeping the orient divided to permit the con- tinued exploitation of the subject people. In alleging underhanded state department workings, Hurley stated that war plans drawn up for the Big Three meet ~t Yalta and favoring the distribution of Allied arms to Chinese Reds if they were within Maj. Gen. Patrick Hurley the area of proposed American land- ings, were communicated to the communists. As a result, the Reds moved en masse toward the pros- pective beaches in an effort to se- cure the arms ahead of Chiang'a nationalists. Mentioning George Atcheson Jr and John S. Service as two of the career men working against his unification plan in Chungking, Hur- ley said they returned to the U. S: to be promoted as his superiors. LABOR: Truman Scare Because President Truman's pro- posal for the creation of fact-finding machinery to speed settlement of industrial strife was reported to have thrown a scare into both capi- tal and labor, General Motors and the ClO's United Automobile Work- ers agreed to a resumption of negotiations over the union's de- mantis for a 30 per cent waifs tn- crease. At the same time, expert observ- ers looked to settlement of wage disputes involving two other major CIO organizations, the United Steel Workers against U. S. Steel corpor- ation and the Electrical Workers against Westinghouse, General Elec- tric and other corporations tn this industry. Decision of G. M. and UAW to resume bargaining reportedly fol- lowed a secret meeting between company and union, oflicllis in Pittsburgh, Pa in which the danger of the President,a proposal to free negotiation wan said to have been discussed. Under Mr. Truman's re- quest for congressional authority to set up fact-finding machinery, gov- ernment representatives would be empowered to look into both earn- l~nY and un/on books to determt0e validity of rival cla|ms ~ strike action would be withheld during the investigations. Advanced after failure of the labm - management :conference in, lh~dngtou,D; C to establish me chanism~ t0r speedy settlement of industrial warfare, the President's proposal drew quick fire from union circles, the CIO announcing vigorous steps would be tak~m In effort to divert the requested le~isletion. In openly breaking with the Del~. o~aUc administration on the pro- measure, CIO Chieftain Philip Murray declared the design of such legislation was to weaken and de- stroy labor organization while aP- peasing American industry which has refused to bargain l~cerely' over wage demands. PEARL HARBOR: Prepared: Marshall Declaring that American military. forces in Hawaii were more ads. quately equipped than at any other installation in the army, Gen. George C. Marshall. former U. S. chief of staff, told the congressional commit- ~/e investigating the Pearl Harbor d~aster that he felt Maj. Gen. Wal- ter Short was prepared to meet a stlprise attack on quick notice. l~efecting general military opin- ion, however, Marshall testified that he did not expect a Japanese at- tack on the big base. even though both the army and navy were aware that enemy spies there were for- warding information on feet move- ments in Pearl Harbor to Tokyo. A conservative Japanese thrust southward to Thailand and Malaya was anticipated, Marshall related. Acknowledging receipt of Short's reply to Marshall warning of pos- sible hostilities sent on November 27, the ex-chtef of staff said special attention was not called to the fact that the Hawaiian commander had only reported alerting his forces against sabotage without mention- ing other preparations. Regarding U. S British, Dutch and Canadian pro-Pearl Harbor discussions. Marshall said their purpose primarily concerned the de-~ feat of Germany rather than Japan. In a message to President Roose- velt sometime in the summer of 1941, the former chief of staff opined that the Allies could not defeat the Nazis with s0pplies alone, but large ground forces would he required. Jap Chief Faces Death First major axis personage to be convicted of war crimes, Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita's liIe depended on a U. S. Supreme court disposition o] his appeal that the military commission trying him lacked authority, and finally upon Gem Douglas MocArthur if the high American tribunal denied his peti. Though Yamashim was not direcily charged with committing atrocities, he was accused of having contenanced them. With typical ]apanese humility in defeat, Yams. shita thanked the U. S. Jar supplying him with "brilliant and consclen. tinus" lawyers for his trial, and also fairness of the hearings. FAT STOCK: Record Sale Gr~md champion of the Chicago Market Fat Stock show, Tomahawk, sleek Shorthorn steer raised ey Carl A. Henkel of Mason City, Iowa. and Joseph Duea of Belmond, Iowa, brought the highest pries ever paid for a steer when it was auctioned off to John R. Thompson. Chicago restaurateur, for $11,100. Sired from a Shorthorn bull bred by Chicago Packer Thomas E. Wil- son, Tomahawk scaled 1,100 pounds, bringing the owners' return to $10 a pound, $1.15 less than the all-time top per pound paid to the Eastern States exposition champion of 915 pounds in 1929. Tomahawk'a huge return justified the confdenee of its owners, who turned down a $500 bid for the steer 17 months ago. High prices prevailed for stock champions, Karl Hoffman, veteran Hereford breeder of Ida Grove, Iowa, receiving $30,660 for his grand prize carload of 15 steers averaging 1,022 pounds, and George E. Ha//man and his son, George Jr. of Ida Grove, Iowa, obtaining $1,742 for the top carload of 26 Berkshire hags aver- aging 268 pounds. Honor 4-H Cl/rnax to the whirlwind 4-H con- gross held in Chicago, Ill 151 dole. gates received approximately $33,- 000 in awards at the annual banquet staged in the Stevens hotel. Of the total, $17,200 was paid in scholar- ships mostly of ~ denominations while $14.600 was disbutrsed in tray- Of five.day duration, the 24th an- nual 4,H convention proved a field day for the 1.1~0 delegates in at- tendane~ 80 per cent of whom had never been outside their home ~atata8 or stopped at a hotel, and 50 per cent of whom had enjoyed their first train ride in coming to the meet. Stressin]g the need for individual progress and enterprise to assure survival Secretary of Agricttlturo Anderson told 4-H delegates that 50 per cent of the youth living on terms will have to seek other occu- pations due to increasing effleleney and meehanlzatlon. FARM PROBLEM: CED Solutions Broader vocational training, spe- cia~ types of rural employment services and an accelerated shift of manufacturing into country areasI would materially assist in the in- creased use of surplus farm labor in industry and help solve one of the primary problems of agricul- ture, the CommRtee for Economic Development declared in a state- ment released by Chester Davis, CED vice chairman and presi- dent of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. With agriculture destined to look more and more to the co-operatiwa effort of government for assistance in resolving problems arising from heavy mechanized production and pressure on commodity prices, the CED foresaw a need for three types of federal payments within the near future: (1) to enable farmers in de- pressed regions like the cotton belt to shift to other crops or occupa- tions; (2) to compensate operators for the effect of severe industrial depressions, and (3) to pet~nit reali- zation of the government pledge to support farm prices for two years after the war. In reference to long-range price policy, CED asked for re-exam/na* tion of the whole cost system, be- ginning with a redefinition of parity in relation to existing conditions. GOP: Map Platform Making no bones about their conservatism, Republican members of congress drawing up a campaign platform for 1946 called for bal- ancing the budget, economy and re- duction of bureaucracy and repre- sented themselves as the counter- weight to what they styled Demo- cratic radicalism. In rounding out their domestic platform, the CrOP solons hacked collective bargaining with govern- meat provision for speeding nettle. meat of disputes, and also stood for government support of farm prices in the readjustment period and agri- culture's future fair share of the na- tional income. In foreign affairs, the Republicans favored the United Nations organi- zation, the right of individual na- tions to self-government and exten- sion of relief to the needy in war- torn lands abroad to prevent chaos and misery. Advocating a well- tra~ed armed force, the GOP also asked for sci~tific research to as- sure the most modern weapons. Cocky Hermann 1 Now hesdln~ the list of 20 top Nails being tried for war crimes in Nuernberg, Hermann Goofing found diversion in palmier days playing with snimala from his mini- ature zoo at garin linll estate. Blandly assuming reaponsibfilty for all of his official acts and confirming to swear by national soula~l~m, Goering has been the most ~gres- alve of the Hitlerlan big.wig1 at the trial, now in Its second ~ with British prosecution of principads on clmrges they violated intermtttomd treaties. BRITISH LOAN: i.Trade Help In what the British termed "a magna carte for world trade," the Truman administration replied to their appeal for a loan to permit an orderly resumption of their for- elgn cOmmerce by agreeing to an advance of 4.4 billion dollars subject to congressional approval. Flatly turning.down British~p~- p~al$ for an outright grant on the strength of arguments that, their early stand had prevented a Nazi victory, the administration agreed to spread the loan over 8 50-year riod at a 3 per cent interest rate, first payable in I~I. As result of the loan, Britain will be able to pay off wartimo debts by shipment of flni~md goods to creditor nations, whtle importing material to maintain lea adequate living atandard. The two countries also lfledgad to work fee a reduction in tarl~ and the eUmina- tion of quotas and other restrictions on world trade. Strive for Employment Of Disabled Veterans Act to Furnish Handicapped-With Chance For Gainful Occupation; Industry Pledges Full Co-Operation. By BAUKHAGE News Analyst and Commentator. WNU Service, I61J Eye Street, N.W Washington, D. C. - When a lot more workers than Jobs begin to plague the employ- ment offices of the country, some 2~ million men stand to have a little tougher sledding than their fellows . . . that is. unless the pro- gram that will be getting under way as these lines appear achieves the worthy purpose that its designers have for it. The potential workers who are go- ing to get this special help are the men who have made the second greatest sacrifice in World War II--- the ones who gave all never came back. rm going to talk about the disabled American veterans. In times of great unemployment a person with a disahility has two strikes on him when pitted for a Job against a perfectly ahle-bodied worker. Therefore, the Disabled American Veterans, a veterans' or- ganlzation whose membership is confined solely to the war disabled. is setting up the machinery to go to bat for him ao that he from whom much has been taken to keep the rest of us secure within the wide bounds of these United States will have at least as good a chance as his ab~e-bodied colleague in getting a Job where he can earn a living for himself and his family. For the first time in its history, DAV. the Disabled American Vet- erans, has set up a highly integrat- ed national network of employment officers headed in Washington hy Dr. Gilbert S. Macvaugh. a disabled veteran of this war and a former lieutenant contrnander with wide ex- perience in personnel and employ- ment counselling. These employ- ment officers have their hands reaching out in two directions---one toward the disabled veteran and one toward the employer in an endeavor to bring the two together ao that the employer and the veteran may meet and reach an agreement on a Job. Let me give you two small exam- ples of the type of thing the DAV is getting ready to do in a big way. Take the case of the man who had been wounded in the invasion of Normandy. An injury to his spinal column paralyzed him from the waist down so that he is bed- ridden. On directions from the Washington DAV office, the local employment officer of the DAV con- tacted the man to see what kind of work he might do while in bed and yet receive some income. In the man's community there was a small plant for making hooked rugs. The DAV representative arranged to have the bed.ridden veteran make hooked rugs and markdt them With this concern. Then there is an entirely different type of ease---seeing that Justice is done the disabled veteran after he does get a Job. A guard was em- ployed tn s certain public build- Ing. He had a slight nervous dis- order for which a pSychlatrist was treating him. prescribing a little medication to be taken while on duty. One day the medicine made the veteran feel drowsy and he asked to be relieved from duty for a few hours until he could overcome it. That was refused him. Subse- quently charges were preferred against him and he was given a letter of suspension. The DAV Na- tional Employment officer went to the mat for him and had the whole ease uncovered. Find Boys Can Do Job Well Back of the helping hand offered to the disabled veterans to get them into job8 a lot of spade work has been going on--the ground has been prepered with great care so that when the crisis comes-- many workers and few Jobs--the former G.I. who literally gave part of himself for the rest of ua will have an opporttm/ty to work. The DAY auertl that he can do a Job well in spite of his handicap. It points to r~ it is accumulating which show that when a disabled veteran Is hired, he shows great care and conscientiousness In per- forming his task. It's something like the story of the old Wuh/ngton airport--it was one ~ the most dan- gerous in the United Statea, but there were no major accidents on it. The answer was that pilots, knowing the hazards, took extra precautions in using the field. So a disabled veteran, already knowing what it is to be handicapped, uses considerable extra care. I said the DAV had set up a na- tional employment program for the first time in its existence, headed up in Washington by a National Employment officer. Then each state has a Chief Employment of- ricer. The DAY in each state is divided into chapters, or local units, and each has an employment of- ricer also, thus bringing the contact of this helping hand right down into the community where the veteran Lives or is hoslpitalized. Before the program can begin operating in the complete way en- visioned by its planners, the men who can offer the Jobs have to be contacted personally and the chal- lenge of their opportunity to maka work available to handicapped vet- crane has to be put squarely be- fore them. This has been the first task of Dr. Macvaugh and his corpa of employment officers. DA V Gets OR To Good Start A strong beginning was made when at a conference in Atlantic City the following representative or- ganizations, among others, were contacted personally by the DbV National Employment officer and asked to influence the businesses for which they are spokesmen to put disabled veterans on their work rolls: the National Association of Manufacturers, the American Bank- ers association,' the Chamber of Commerce, the National Council of Farmer Co-operatives, the Ameri- can Farm Bureau federation, the American Retail federation, the Air Transport association, Aircraft In- dustries association, Investment Bankers association, Committee of Economic Development, American Trucking association, American Waterways Operators, Association of American Railroads, National Foreign Trade Council, National Re. tail Dry Goods association, Interns- tional Association of Lions Clubs. National Grange, National Associa- tion of Motor Bus Operator& and so on. But this gives you an indicao tion of the scope of the cultivation of the soil for jobs for di~ahled vet- eYans. Available Jobs are made known to the Veterans' Employment Repre- sentative of the United States Em- ployment aervice, which has agreed to designate an assistant in each state who will specialize in tho em- ployment of war disabled G.I.a. The DAV has developed a system whereby its chapter employment of- fcer knows as soon as a man who has a disability is released from an instltut/on and is available for work in his community. He also knows the disabled veterans living there who need jobs. It is hi8 task to bring the men and the Jobs to- aether. It is the DAV chapter employ- ment officer who takes the man to the veterans' employment repre- sentative of the USES where the jobs are registered, and on to the pro- spective employer, if necessary, to clinch the employment of the ex- G.L There are rive planks in the em- ployment platform of the DAY. First, to convince employers tiutt they should employ dis- abled American veterans, some- where, IMMEDIATELY; Second, to support the trnin. ing of disabled veterans for more than one key Job in~'aU industry so that when heuv~ uaemldoyment develope, tho dimbled maa will not be the first discharg~d, for be wilt be to do mare than one Job; Third. to advccato inm, oesod w~es f~r disabled ~ter~no be. came the~ h~ve beneme more valuably no a"e mlt of the mui- trninia ; Fourth, to try to tmpeove working condition8 fur the dis- shied ex~.l, so time I~ Job M pi mmt mm; lflfth, to seeprete,nmee is #win Um d aMed, vetorna in elayJng en the Job wbeu peo beve to be released. PAVL ]qALLOI Hi i Released b~ Western Newsvamr U~ STATE DEPARTMENT NEEDS REORGANIZATION WASHINGTON.--What Pat Hur-~ ley said was true. For many months, evidence haul been leaking from the state depart-i ment suggesting the permanent un-~ derlying eliqua was unsympathetic! with top policy, and underminingl it in subtle little ways. Yet therel was nothing sufficiently provable toi warrant printing. The men within~ the department] who have noticed the condition have! been so frightened they dared notI speak, even privately, outside of tho! department. Because of the stands they/ have taken within the depart-~ meat they knew they were~ amt- l~ot to the relgnin~ group, and occasionally thought they were being followed or their tale. phone conversations tapped. Even business men dealing there have noticed the condi- tion, compared notes about it among themelves, and won- dered its extent. But until the retiring ambassador to spoke out with direct clmr~m, the matter never reached the public eye. State Secretary Byrnes, my in- formants say, does not know the facts, nor did his predecessor, Mr. Stettinlus. Byrnes promised a de- partmental reorganization and brought in a few top men. but thla wan as far as his reorganizatio~ went. And today, more men are being taken into the clique than are lear- ing it. The various bureaucratic holdovers of the Roosevelt regime. losing their war Jobs in other de- partments, have been seeking couches in state. It is a peculiar condition and has never been accurately defined, not even by Mr. Hurley in his restrict- ed charges. The men of the clique do not hold meetings ancl agree to undermine this or that. They are merely of one mind on some basic ideas. For one thing, they are unsym- pathetic with American foreign pol- icy today. For another, they agree in their distrust of anyone who would question Russia in the slight- est upon any subject, They are not Communists but their minds are guided by the Communist grooves of thought. FASCISTS OBJECTED TO BY STATE CLIQUE Objectionable things are to them "fascistic." Hence Chlang Kal.shek is a Fascist; Russia. a democracy. But they branch off from Commu- nist grooves to others strangely enough. The British have the best diplo- macy, they think; hence Britain like- wise can do no wrong. They are known also as "the ttr.i~ed trousers set." affecting the uniform of the Downing street diplomats beyond necessities. To define what speclfle under- mining they do is difficult. They are an Invisible ~H of resist. 8race. Hurley had two men in the far eastern division in mind in his charges. These two, he apparently caught telling the Chinese to pay no attention to him, and spreading around at cocktail parties the notion that the American foreign policy wsa temporary, tl~ R. would not hack Chmzgking tit postwar. Be- yond this 'apparently he bad no convincing evidence. His purPose in reversing himself abruptly and deciding to quit with a challenging public statement, woe to force a congressional investiga- tion. A thorough one no doubt would force a reorganization which not even a secretary of state has been able to effect in his own do- partment. Before Byrnem and 8tettinins, Mr. Hull knew very wen wlmt was golag ca. He eouM read in the papers dally, the idsuted news ietked from his m~mt a#~mt b/m, aml be ,m k Smm r his ae- 8 staat, was detmr but Welles was the ury cutlet for the vllque within. Not eve~ Hull osuld do much. Mr. Byrnee has indicated, his in- tontion to smile away the matter, and them is danger that the Dmn- oerntie administration will trot it Imlitieally. Hur1 7 is a telmbllea , and his efforts for a inquiry may be ahtmted off as a po. litieal attack.